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Creating Environments to Foster Deep Learning Patricia Underwood, PhD,RN,FAAN 10/1/2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating Environments to Foster Deep Learning Patricia Underwood, PhD,RN,FAAN 10/1/2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating Environments to Foster Deep Learning Patricia Underwood, PhD,RN,FAAN 10/1/2010

2 . Handouts may be found at: Objectives: – Describe Learning Paradigm & Constructivist approaches in fostering deep learning – Discuss implications of research on brain function & effective teaching for enhancing deep learning – Discuss potential strategies to foster deep learning

3 . Carnegie Report Challenges us to transform nursing education To appreciate & prepare for the complexity of practice To stop simply giving information about X but rather to coach students in developing the means to think about X enhancing connections between acquiring & using knowledge (p. 89)

4 . What is deep learning? Deep Learning: Oriented to deriving meaning (probing, exploring, considering new applications) Translation to new situations, integration, synthesis, reflection Surface Learning: Reproducing, rote memorization Achievement Learning: Strategic Doing just what is needed for a grade (often surface, some deep)

5 . How can we promote deep learning? Through the orientation teachers bring to the learning situation: Use of a Learning vs a Teaching paradigm

6 . Barr & Tagg (1995) Teaching Paradigm Focus on means Students passive recipients Teacher is expert conveyer of knowledge Strategies: lecture Learning Paradigm Focus on outcomes Students co-creators of knowledge Teacher is coach & facilitator Strategies: create meaningful experiences, active, reflection

7 . How can we promote deep learning? Use of theoretical approaches that foster development of new knowledge and integration: – Constructivism – Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory

8 . Constructivism Constructivist approach to learning is consistent with the Learning Paradigm Backwards planning: Outcomes first Ask: How can I create an environment in which students can achieve the desired outcome?

9 . Question 1 What is one way in which the application of the Learning Paradigm and/or a Constructivist approach might promote learning for your students?

10 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory

11 Reflect on research on the brain & implications for education How can we promote deep learning?

12 Zull’s articulation of brain function to Kolb’s Theory of Experiential Learning

13 . Knowledge of brain function: Back & front cortex “talk to each other” Data are received and organized through reflection in the back cortex. Transformation only occurs when the data are converted to ideas, plans & actions in the front part of the cortex. A balance in stimulating back & front cortex is encouraged

14 . Pressures according to Zull Emphasis on back cortex Information is valued Students pressured to acquire data; teach to NCLEX Teachers pressured to know the facts Imbalance leads to feeling overwhelmed Emphasis on front cortex Pressure to use new and active ways of teaching; engage students through play Danger: making the classroom a playroom & trivializing learning

15 . Question 2 Give one example of how you might apply Zull’s research to your teaching?

16 Research on the most effective teachers (Bain, 2004)

17 What the best college teachers do N = 63 qualitative narrative history design Questions: – What learning objectives do you have? – How do you foster achievement? – What is your evidence of students’ successes? – What evidence do you have that your methods contribute significantly to students’ learning?

18 The most effective teachers: Approach teaching as an intellectual endeavor Begin preparation with questions about student learning objectives Expect more of their students Emphasize objectives that embody the thinking & acting that is expected for life (consistent with Carnegie Report challenge)

19 . Teaching strategies: Create natural critical learning environments Confront important problems Challenge students to rethink assumptions & mental models of reality Provide challenge with support

20 . Teaching strategies: Provide learners with a sense of control Encourage collaboration Provide fair, honest feedback as soon as possible and prior to any summative judgment

21 . Question 3 What one thing will you do based on Bain’s research that you are not currently doing?

22 . Effective teaching strategy Planned considering desired learning outcomes Uses teacher as facilitator Incorporates full ELT cycle Promotes full brain activity Maximizes neural development

23 . Carnegie Report encourages: Scaffolding classes around patient & population based care (use unfolding case studies, teaching narrative structures for making a case, simulation exercises & patient interviews in the classroom, & other strategies to allow for a dramatic rehearsal of patient care).

24 . Exercise Identify a focal group of students: 1.Identify one potential learning strategy to foster deep learning among your students that you would like to try 2. Share with the person next to you & briefly (5 min.) discuss what might be the challenges of that strategy? Share examples with the larger group

25 . Resources: Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press. Barr, R.B. & Tagg, J. (1995). From teaching to learning. Change, Benner, P., Sutphen, M., Leonard, V., & Day, L. (2009). Educating nurses: A call for radical transformation. Felder, RM & Brent, R. (2005). Understanding student differences. Journal of Engineering Education, 94, 57- 72.

26 . Resources: Zull, J. (2002 ). The art of changing the brain. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing

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