Presentation on theme: "Chapters 1-3 compressed US History Foundations. The original Americans and Exploration Chapter 1."— Presentation transcript:
Chapters 1-3 compressed US History Foundations
The original Americans and Exploration Chapter 1
How did they get here?
On this map, notice the tribal names. Many of them are major contributors to the names we have today. Some notable names include: Massachusett, Kansa, Wichita, Cheyenne. Regional differences were vast.
The Europeans begin to explore… Middle ages suppress invention and exploration.. Flat earth beliefs versus church control Prince Henry the Navigator Sails the other way around Africa—tacking a sailboat. Portugal becomes primary trade power in the world. Spain is a bitter rival of Portugal, can’t stand this. A competition emerges for God, Gold and Glory. Christopher Columbus He’s Italian, but is turned down for his voyage by Italy and Portugal. Spain takes a chance…
European Colonization Chapter 2
Was a hidalgo, a young Spanish gentleman Searched in vain for a “fountain of youth” Explored and named Florida in 1513
Vasco Núñez de Balboa Arrived on the Isthmus of Panama, a narrow strip of land that joins North and South America He and his men were the first known Europeans to see the Pacific Ocean from the American continent.
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Coronado searched the present-day southwestern United States, unsuccessfully, for the fabled golden cities. He was the first European to explore the Grand Canyon. He did, however, succeed in getting a high school named after him though!
Building a Spanish Empire The Spanish used the same methods of conquest to colonize the Americas that they used to drive the Muslims out of Spain. The conquistadors, or Spanish conquerors of the Americas, had three goals: to spread the Christian religion; (God) to gain wealth; (Gold) to gain fame. (Glory) Hernán Cortés conquered the empire of the Aztecs. Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan empire. Both groups were aided by Native American allies, and by diseases that killed many natives.
English Exploration 5 guys (Cabot, Frobisher, Davis, Hudson, Drake) were trying to find the Northwest Passage, a fabled trade route to Asia. It wasn’t successful until 1903.
Colonization and Jamestown There were several reasons why England decided it should establish a colony in the Americas : Privateers (aka pirates) wanted a base for attacks on Spain. They wanted to have supply stations for NW Passage. English merchants wanted new markets. The Americas would be a good place to send those who could not find housing or work in England. To establish an American Colony: English businessmen first had to get a charter, or certificate of permission, from the king. The charter allowed them to form a joint-stock company—a company funded and run by a group of investors who share the company’s profits and losses.
Jamestown The company, the Virginia Company, sent 100 colonists to Virginia in They named their new village Jamestown, in honor of King James I. The colony nearly failed, due to The company, the Virginia Company, sent 100 colonists to Virginia in They named their new village Jamestown, in honor of King James I. The colony nearly failed, due to conflict with Native Americans conflict with Native Americans unrealistic expectations of settlers not used to doing hard work unrealistic expectations of settlers not used to doing hard work poor location—near a swamp with disease-carrying mosquitoes poor location—near a swamp with disease-carrying mosquitoes starvation starvation poor leadership poor leadership
Growing Tobacco The Promise of Land Despite criticism, tobacco was very successful and saved the Virginia colonists from failure. Large plantations growing tobacco needed a way to persuade laborers to settle in America. The headright system granted each person who came to the colony 50 acres of land. This policy helped attract English settlers to America.
Growing Tobacco Indentured Servants Tobacco became a boom crop for England which required plantations growing tobacco to seek out labor. Many who wanted to sail to America could not afford the voyage. They became indentured servants, trading labor for the trip here. Between 100,000 and 150,000 men and women came as servants in the Mid- Atlantic. Many died young due to the hot climate and disease.
Conflict With Native Americans The English believed it best to “civilize” any culture they conquered. Native Americans React to this attitude In 1622, Native Americans attacked Jamestown, intending to wipe out the English. The attempt failed, but 350 colonists (more than 25 percent of the population) and at least as many Native Americans were killed. Native Americans tried again in This attempt also failed.
The New England Colonies Chapter 2 Section 3
Coming to America-The Mayflower Coming across to America aboard the Mayflower was a treacherous journey, and an unpredictable one. Upon arrival in Massachusetts, they had nothing, so supplies were crucial.
Supplies were VERY important… Colonists traveling to New England were provided with this Catalogue that listed what each person needed to bring to America. This list had a one years’ supply of all rations.
Ship Conditions On the left is the Captains’ Quarters aboard the Mayflower II, a current replica of the original Mayflower. On the right is the crews’ quarters. The rest of those aboard slept where they stood on the wooden floors. The voyage took six weeks.
The French in North America The Fur Trade Explorers included: Verrazano, Cartier, Champlain, Joliet and Marquette. The French in New France discovered that fur could be sold in Europe for great profit. Native Americans traded the fur to the French. The fur trade determined the shape of New France. New France stuck close to the waterways for transporting goods.
The French in North America The Iroquois The French presence in North America led to an increase in warfare among Native Americans. The fur trade caused different Indian groups to fight over hunting territory. The Iroquois pushed rival Native American tribes out of their homelands, forcing them to migrate west of the Great Lakes.
Plimouth Plantation Set in 1627, this is what the Puritans would have built within 7 years of their arrival.
Puritan Life The puritan believed in a strict moral conduct. This included the idea of predestination. The belief in predestination required that they live life to these moral standards because they were unaware of their predestined eternal destination (heaven/hell).
City on a Hill This was a phrase coined by John Winthrop. The idea was that Puritans had a responsibility to be an example to the rest of the world. This included social reciprocity, obligation to the poor, following of God’s law.
The Middle and Southern Colonies Section 4
The Middle Colonies Settlers of the Middle Colonies, the colonies immediately to the south of New England, had a great diversity (variety) of people. The Middle Colonies included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. They are called the Middle Colonies because they are in the middle of the Atlantic Coast of North America.
The Dutch in New York A Thriving Colony In 1625, the Dutch founded a trading station, New Amsterdam, at the mouth of the Hudson River. They made arrangements with local Native Americans to build homes on Manhattan Island. They grew prosperous trading fur and other goods with Europe. Religious tolerance was a firm rule in the colony. The Dutch built the first synagogue, or house of Jewish worship, in North America.
The Dutch in New York England Takes Over In 1664, the English King Charles II declared that the Dutch colony belonged to his brother, the Duke of York. The Duke of York sent ships and troops to New Amsterdam, forcing the Dutch to give up the town. New Amsterdam was renamed New York. The colony of New York was a proprietary colony—a colony granted by a king or queen to an individual or group that had full governing rights. James, Duke of York