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Joshua Grieser.  General Definition ◦ Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data  IT Definition ◦ Refers to.

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Presentation on theme: "Joshua Grieser.  General Definition ◦ Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data  IT Definition ◦ Refers to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joshua Grieser

2  General Definition ◦ Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data  IT Definition ◦ Refers to technologies and methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon at least one physical or behavioral trait  Instead of using something you have (a key) or something you know (a password), biometrics uses who you are to identify you

3  Quantitative measurements of humans for the purpose of identification dates back to 1870s ◦ Measurement system of Alphonse Bertillon  System included skull diameter and arm and foot length measurements  1920s: used to identify prisoners  1960s: digital signal processing techniques lead to automating human identification  1970s: government using technologies for fingerprint and hand geometry

4  Two categories of biometric identifiers ◦ Anatomical ◦ Behavioral  Different types of biometric systems  How it works  Enrollment process  Uses of biometric systems ◦ Current ◦ Future

5  Fingerprint  Face recognition  Iris recognition  Palm print

6  DNA  Voice patterns  Handwriting  Keystroke dynamics  Skin analysis  Vein patterns  Gait

7  Token – something a person possesses and uses to assert a claim to identity ◦ (Password, PIN)  Tokens no longer sufficient to authenticate identity ◦ Easy to counterfeit/steal ◦ Cannot ensure positive identification of a person ◦ Passwords forgotten and stolen  Biometric identifiers are linked to a person  More robust audit trail, documentation

8  Large number of civilian and government applications  Physical access control  Welfare disbursement  International border crossing  National ID cards  Computer log-in  Safes  Home alarm systems

9  Seven factors used: ◦ Universality ◦ Uniqueness ◦ Permanence ◦ Measurability ◦ Performance ◦ Acceptability ◦ Circumvention  Note: No single biometric will meet all requirements of every possible application.

10  Universality ◦ Means that every person using a system should possess the trait.  Uniqueness ◦ Means the trait should be sufficiently different for each person using the system in order to distinguish from one another.  Permanence ◦ Relates to a trait varying over time. Trait with good permanence will be more invariant over time, not constantly changing.

11  Measurability (collectability) ◦ Relates to the ease of measuring the trait. The data form can be processed, features extracted.  Performance ◦ Relates to accuracy, speed and robustness of the technology used.  Acceptability ◦ Relates to how well individuals in the population accept the technology. They are willing to have that biometric trait captured and assessed.  Circumvention ◦ Relates to the how easy the trait is to imitate.

12  All systems boil down to the same three steps  Enrollment ◦ Records information about you  Storage ◦ Translates the info into a code or graph  Comparison ◦ Compares traits to the template on file

13  All systems also use the same three components  Sensor ◦ Detects characteristic being used for identification  Computer ◦ Reads and stores the information  Software ◦ Performs actual comparison

14  In general, biometric system will scan trait and process data by accessing a database.  Two modes ◦ Verification mode ◦ Identification mode  Biometric templates ◦ Most biometric types are converted into mathematical representations to compare against

15 Stored in reader device, central repository, or portable token Some devices have temporary storage

16  System performs one-to-one comparison  Uses specific template stored in a database  Involves confirming or denying a person’s claimed identity  Am I who I claim I am?  To determine which template to compare against, one of the following is used: ◦ Smart card ◦ Username ◦ ID number

17  System performs one-to-many comparison ◦ More difficult  Attempts to recognize a person from a list of users in the template database  Who am I?  Successfully identifies the human if the sample collected matches template from the database when compared  Comparison result has to fall into preset threshold

18  Enrollment - first time an individual uses the biometric system  During enrollment, biometric information from individual is captured and stored in the database  In subsequent uses, the sample is collected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment  Three Blocks

19  Interface between system and real world (human)  Where the system acquires all necessary data  Actual interaction with sensors  Mainly image acquisition systems  Can be different depending on desired characteristics

20  All pre-processing performed  Removes artifacts from sensors to enhance input  Normalization  Example: removing background noise

21  Necessary, unique features are extracted to create the template  Critical step, correct features have to be extracted in the optimal way  Uses vector of numbers or an image with particular properties to create template  Discards measurements not used in creation of template ◦ Reduce file size ◦ Protect identity of enrollee

22  Encrypted using strong cryptographic algorithms to secure and protect them from disclosure  Protects biometric templates from being ◦ Reconstructed ◦ Decrypted ◦ Reverse-engineered ◦ Manipulated in other ways  Most templates are site specific  Data is converted into code, not real life representation of person’s traits

23  When performing matching phase, template is passed to matcher that compares it with existing templates  Estimates distance between them using comparing algorithm ◦ (how different the two templates are)  Many different algorithms depending on biometric type ◦ Example: Hamming distance  If accepted, it is output for specified use like entrance in a restricted area

24  “distance” between two strings of equal length (how different they are)  Measures minimum number of substitutions required to change one string into the other string (number of errors)  Examples ◦ “toned”  “roses” = 3 ◦ 1011101  1001001 = 2 ◦ 2173896  2233796 = 3  Programmed in many different languages  Used for strings, integers, characters

25  Oldest biometric known  Were previously captured with ink on paper and mailed/faxed  Entire process now done in near real time  Leading toward use in applications from biometric passports to ATMs  Ridges and furrows used as reference points  60-70 points of reference in fingerprints


27  Face we are born with remains identifiable throughout our lives  Curves and contours remain relatively stable  Requires large image capture device  Most suitable at fixed locations  Least intrusive, can be scanned from a distance  Accuracy depends on lighting conditions


29  Each iris has different shapes and colors  As unique as a snowflake  Less intrusive, scanners don’t require bright lights  Mathematical expression of iris is most detailed of any biometric technology  Most accurate biometric  Considered one of the most secure

30  Approximately 250 distinctive characteristics in an iris  All can be used as points of reference for comparison  Odds of two people having the same pattern are 1 in 7 billion  Comparing against database is quick and high level of accuracy  Used in airports and other secure facilities  Most costly system


32  Size and shape of hands are unique to individuals  Device scans 3-D geometry of hand and fingers  Creates mathematical picture which is compared against a database  Readers are large, best suited for fixed point access  Capture units withstand extreme workforce conditions like temperature, weather  Can also verify individual’s hand even when it is dirty


34  Password for voice is tone and timbre  Graph representation and compared against a database  User has to teach the computer first by speaking a number of phrases  Quick and efficient after the enrollment process  Only ambient noise limits its application

35  Not just how you shape each letter  Analyzes act of writing  Examines pressure you use, speed and rhythm with which you write  Records sequence in which you form letters ◦ Add dots and crosses as you go or after you finish  Systems sensors can include touch-sensitive writing surface or pen that contains sensors and detects angle, pressure, and direction  Translates handwriting into a graph

36 Pressure Speed Acceleration Angle

37  Aim to auto-update templates  Benefits: ◦ No longer need to collect large number of biometric samples during enrollment process ◦ No longer necessary to re-enroll/retrain the system ◦ Can significantly reduce the cost of maintaining a biometric system  Issues: ◦ Higher false acceptance ◦ Threshold has to account for a changing template

38  Privacy and discrimination ◦ Possible to use data from enrollment for ways in which the user did not consent ◦ Example: DNA recognition used to screen for genetic diseases  Higher danger to owners ◦ Thieves can get more desperate ◦ Example: cut off a finger to get access to fingerprint scanner  Cancelable biometrics ◦ Unlike passwords, biometrics cannot be cancelled or reissued to a person if compromised

39  Some people object to biometrics for cultural or religious reasons  Possibility of companies selling biometric data similar to email addresses/phone numbers  Over reliance – not foolproof, can’t forget about common sense security practices  Accessibility – some systems can’t be adapted for all populations (elderly/disabled people)

40  Australia  Brazil  Canada  Germany  India  Iraq  Italy  United States

41  International sharing of biometric data ◦ Countries, including US, are sharing biometric data with other nations ◦ Positive:  Could help combat terrorism by having access to other countries’ data ◦ Negative:  Easier for people in other countries to get access to our data  Makes it easier to tamper with

42  Minority Report ◦ Uses Iris scans for identification as well as POS transactions  MythBusters ◦ Attempted to break into commercial security door ◦ Had fingerprint authentication ◦ Successful with printed scan of fingerprint ◦ Unsuccessful with gel fingerprint  Mission Impossible ◦ Voice/iris recognition

43  Biometrics Vulnerability Assessment Service  Proprietary of Biometrics Institute  Customer submits their system for independent testing  Conducted in an independent laboratory  Biometric devices are sent to have their vulnerabilities investigated, assessed, and reported  Helps make sure your system is secure and work out any kinks

44  Central source of info on biometrics-related activities of the federal government  Sister site  Repository of public information and opportunities for discussion  Developed to encourage collaboration and sharing of info on biometric activities among: ◦ Government departments and agencies ◦ State, regional, and international organizations ◦ General public

45  Biometrics Reference ◦ General info about biometric technologies, government programs and privacy planning  Presidential Directives ◦ PD that touch on biometrics or federal biometric activities  NSTC Subcommittee on Biometrics and Identity Management Room ◦ Info on the National Science & Technology Council’s Subcommittee on Biometrics  Standards ◦ Info on federal biometric standards policy

46  Hospitals using scan of veins in your hand to identify patients ◦ Easy access to medical records ◦ Eliminates paper records  Germany, supermarkets use fingerprint biometrics to identify consumer account information and make payments ◦ Possible use in the US  Combine heat sensors to fingerprint, hand scanners ◦ Confirm an actual hand is interacting

47  Mobile Automated Fingerprint ID System ◦ Comparisons made immediately over mobile networks  US border control ◦ Digital photo of both index fingers for non residents ◦ Combat terrorism and monitor residence permits  Digital face/fingerprint images on passports ◦ Increase security/reduce processing time at borders  Enable access to secure/sensitive areas like energy supply facilities or nuclear power stations  Opportunities for digital citizen cards ◦ e-government, e-banking, e-business


49  Layered systems ◦ Combines a biometric method with a keycard or PIN  Multimodal systems ◦ Combines multiple biometric methods simultaneously to confirm identification ◦ Example: iris scanner and a voiceprint system  3-D palm print systems replace 2-D ◦ Much higher anti-counterfeit capability

50  Being tested at Hong Kong Polytechnic University’s Biometrics Research Center  Uses laser scanning to construct 3-D shape of tongue  Collected in about 2-3 seconds

51  Continually increasing revenues  More companies switching to biometric security systems  Annual revenues expect $11 billion by 2017  Compound Annual Growth Rate


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