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Biometrics Joshua Grieser.

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1 Biometrics Joshua Grieser

2 Introduction General Definition IT Definition
Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data IT Definition Refers to technologies and methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon at least one physical or behavioral trait Instead of using something you have (a key) or something you know (a password), biometrics uses who you are to identify you

3 History of Biometrics Quantitative measurements of humans for the purpose of identification dates back to 1870s Measurement system of Alphonse Bertillon System included skull diameter and arm and foot length measurements 1920s: used to identify prisoners 1960s: digital signal processing techniques lead to automating human identification 1970s: government using technologies for fingerprint and hand geometry

4 Overview Two categories of biometric identifiers
Anatomical Behavioral Different types of biometric systems How it works Enrollment process Uses of biometric systems Current Future

5 Common Types Fingerprint Face recognition Iris recognition Palm print

6 Other Types DNA Voice patterns Handwriting Keystroke dynamics
Skin analysis Vein patterns Gait

7 Why Use Biometrics? Token – something a person possesses and uses to assert a claim to identity (Password, PIN) Tokens no longer sufficient to authenticate identity Easy to counterfeit/steal Cannot ensure positive identification of a person Passwords forgotten and stolen Biometric identifiers are linked to a person More robust audit trail, documentation

8 Current Applications Large number of civilian and government applications Physical access control Welfare disbursement International border crossing National ID cards Computer log-in Safes Home alarm systems

9 Assessing suitability of a trait
Seven factors used: Universality Uniqueness Permanence Measurability Performance Acceptability Circumvention Note: No single biometric will meet all requirements of every possible application.

10 Seven Factors Universality Uniqueness Permanence
Means that every person using a system should possess the trait. Uniqueness Means the trait should be sufficiently different for each person using the system in order to distinguish from one another. Permanence Relates to a trait varying over time. Trait with good permanence will be more invariant over time, not constantly changing.

11 Seven Factors Measurability (collectability) Performance Acceptability
Relates to the ease of measuring the trait. The data form can be processed, features extracted. Performance Relates to accuracy, speed and robustness of the technology used. Acceptability Relates to how well individuals in the population accept the technology. They are willing to have that biometric trait captured and assessed. Circumvention Relates to the how easy the trait is to imitate.

12 How it works All systems boil down to the same three steps Enrollment
Records information about you Storage Translates the info into a code or graph Comparison Compares traits to the template on file

13 How it works All systems also use the same three components Sensor
Detects characteristic being used for identification Computer Reads and stores the information Software Performs actual comparison

14 How it works In general, biometric system will scan trait and process data by accessing a database. Two modes Verification mode Identification mode Biometric templates Most biometric types are converted into mathematical representations to compare against

15 Stored in reader device, central repository, or portable token
Some devices have temporary storage

16 Verification Mode System performs one-to-one comparison
Uses specific template stored in a database Involves confirming or denying a person’s claimed identity Am I who I claim I am? To determine which template to compare against, one of the following is used: Smart card Username ID number

17 Identification Mode System performs one-to-many comparison
More difficult Attempts to recognize a person from a list of users in the template database Who am I? Successfully identifies the human if the sample collected matches template from the database when compared Comparison result has to fall into preset threshold

18 Enrollment Enrollment - first time an individual uses the biometric system During enrollment, biometric information from individual is captured and stored in the database In subsequent uses, the sample is collected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment Three Blocks

19 First Block Interface between system and real world (human)
Where the system acquires all necessary data Actual interaction with sensors Mainly image acquisition systems Can be different depending on desired characteristics

20 Second Block All pre-processing performed
Removes artifacts from sensors to enhance input Normalization Example: removing background noise

21 Third Block Necessary, unique features are extracted to create the template Critical step, correct features have to be extracted in the optimal way Uses vector of numbers or an image with particular properties to create template Discards measurements not used in creation of template Reduce file size Protect identity of enrollee

22 Templates are safe Encrypted using strong cryptographic algorithms to secure and protect them from disclosure Protects biometric templates from being Reconstructed Decrypted Reverse-engineered Manipulated in other ways Most templates are site specific Data is converted into code, not real life representation of person’s traits

23 Comparing Algorithms When performing matching phase, template is passed to matcher that compares it with existing templates Estimates distance between them using comparing algorithm (how different the two templates are) Many different algorithms depending on biometric type Example: Hamming distance If accepted, it is output for specified use like entrance in a restricted area

24 Hamming Distance “distance” between two strings of equal length (how different they are) Measures minimum number of substitutions required to change one string into the other string (number of errors) Examples “toned”  “roses” = 3     = 2     = 3 Programmed in many different languages Used for strings, integers, characters

25 Fingerprint Oldest biometric known
Were previously captured with ink on paper and mailed/faxed Entire process now done in near real time Leading toward use in applications from biometric passports to ATMs Ridges and furrows used as reference points 60-70 points of reference in fingerprints

26 Fingerprint

27 Face Recognition Face we are born with remains identifiable throughout our lives Curves and contours remain relatively stable Requires large image capture device Most suitable at fixed locations Least intrusive, can be scanned from a distance Accuracy depends on lighting conditions

28 Face Recognition

29 Iris Recognition Each iris has different shapes and colors
As unique as a snowflake Less intrusive, scanners don’t require bright lights Mathematical expression of iris is most detailed of any biometric technology Most accurate biometric Considered one of the most secure

30 Iris Recognition Approximately 250 distinctive characteristics in an iris All can be used as points of reference for comparison Odds of two people having the same pattern are 1 in 7 billion Comparing against database is quick and high level of accuracy Used in airports and other secure facilities Most costly system

31 Iris Recognition

32 Palm Print Size and shape of hands are unique to individuals
Device scans 3-D geometry of hand and fingers Creates mathematical picture which is compared against a database Readers are large, best suited for fixed point access Capture units withstand extreme workforce conditions like temperature, weather Can also verify individual’s hand even when it is dirty

33 Palm Print/Hand Geometry

34 Voice Recognition Password for voice is tone and timbre
Graph representation and compared against a database User has to teach the computer first by speaking a number of phrases Quick and efficient after the enrollment process Only ambient noise limits its application

35 Handwriting Recognition
Not just how you shape each letter Analyzes act of writing Examines pressure you use, speed and rhythm with which you write Records sequence in which you form letters Add dots and crosses as you go or after you finish Systems sensors can include touch-sensitive writing surface or pen that contains sensors and detects angle, pressure, and direction Translates handwriting into a graph

36 Handwriting Recognition
Pressure Speed Acceleration Angle

37 Adaptive Biometric Systems
Aim to auto-update templates Benefits: No longer need to collect large number of biometric samples during enrollment process No longer necessary to re-enroll/retrain the system Can significantly reduce the cost of maintaining a biometric system Issues: Higher false acceptance Threshold has to account for a changing template

38 Issues and Concerns Privacy and discrimination Higher danger to owners
Possible to use data from enrollment for ways in which the user did not consent Example: DNA recognition used to screen for genetic diseases Higher danger to owners Thieves can get more desperate Example: cut off a finger to get access to fingerprint scanner Cancelable biometrics Unlike passwords, biometrics cannot be cancelled or reissued to a person if compromised

39 Issues and Concerns Some people object to biometrics for cultural or religious reasons Possibility of companies selling biometric data similar to addresses/phone numbers Over reliance – not foolproof, can’t forget about common sense security practices Accessibility – some systems can’t be adapted for all populations (elderly/disabled people)

40 Used in Many Countries Australia Brazil Canada Germany India Iraq
Italy United States

41 International Issue International sharing of biometric data
Countries, including US, are sharing biometric data with other nations Positive: Could help combat terrorism by having access to other countries’ data Negative: Easier for people in other countries to get access to our data Makes it easier to tamper with

42 Popular Culture Minority Report MythBusters Mission Impossible
Uses Iris scans for identification as well as POS transactions MythBusters Attempted to break into commercial security door Had fingerprint authentication Successful with printed scan of fingerprint Unsuccessful with gel fingerprint Mission Impossible Voice/iris recognition

43 BVAS Biometrics Vulnerability Assessment Service
Proprietary of Biometrics Institute Customer submits their system for independent testing Conducted in an independent laboratory Biometric devices are sent to have their vulnerabilities investigated, assessed, and reported Helps make sure your system is secure and work out any kinks

44 Central source of info on biometrics-related activities of the federal government Sister site Repository of public information and opportunities for discussion Developed to encourage collaboration and sharing of info on biometric activities among: Government departments and agencies State, regional, and international organizations General public

45 Four main rooms Biometrics Reference Presidential Directives
General info about biometric technologies, government programs and privacy planning Presidential Directives PD that touch on biometrics or federal biometric activities NSTC Subcommittee on Biometrics and Identity Management Room Info on the National Science & Technology Council’s Subcommittee on Biometrics Standards Info on federal biometric standards policy

46 Future Applications Hospitals using scan of veins in your hand to identify patients Easy access to medical records Eliminates paper records Germany, supermarkets use fingerprint biometrics to identify consumer account information and make payments Possible use in the US Combine heat sensors to fingerprint, hand scanners Confirm an actual hand is interacting

47 Future Applications Mobile Automated Fingerprint ID System
Comparisons made immediately over mobile networks US border control Digital photo of both index fingers for non residents Combat terrorism and monitor residence permits Digital face/fingerprint images on passports Increase security/reduce processing time at borders Enable access to secure/sensitive areas like energy supply facilities or nuclear power stations Opportunities for digital citizen cards e-government, e-banking, e-business

48 Digital Cards

49 Multiple Biometrics Layered systems Multimodal systems
Combines a biometric method with a keycard or PIN Multimodal systems Combines multiple biometric methods simultaneously to confirm identification Example: iris scanner and a voiceprint system 3-D palm print systems replace 2-D Much higher anti-counterfeit capability

50 Tongue Scanning? Being tested at Hong Kong Polytechnic University’s Biometrics Research Center Uses laser scanning to construct 3-D shape of tongue Collected in about 2-3 seconds

51 Biometric Industry Continually increasing revenues
More companies switching to biometric security systems Annual revenues expect $11 billion by 2017 Compound Annual Growth Rate

52 Biometric Industry Forecast

53 Biometrics in Military

54 Questions?

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