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ECE 5367 – Presentation Prepared by: Adnan Khan Pulin Patel

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1 ECE 5367 – Presentation Prepared by: Adnan Khan Pulin Patel
Carlos Reyes Abbas Zaidi Pritesh Patel

2 Biometrics

3 What is … Automatic recognition of a person using distinguishing traits Measurable: quantifying traits Robustness: extent to which trait changes over time Distinctiveness: measure of variations among patterns over a population any automatically measurable, robust and distinctive physical characteristic or personal trait that can be used to identify an individual or verify the claimed identity of an individual. Biometric technologies may seem exotic, but their use is becoming increasingly common, and in 2001 MIT Technology Review named biometrics as one of the “top ten emerging technologies that will change the world.” Measurable means that the characteristic or trait can be easily presented to a sensor, located by it, and converted into a quantifiable, digital format. This measurability allows for matching to occur in a matter of seconds and makes it an automated process. The robustness of a biometric refers to the extent to which the characteristic or trait is subject to significant changes over time. These changes can occur as a result of age, injury, illness, occupational use, or chemical exposure. A highly robust biometric does not change significantly over time while a less robust biometric will change. Distinctiveness is a measure of the variations or differences in the biometric pattern among the general population. The higher the degree of distinctiveness, the more individual is the identifier. A low degree of distinctiveness indicates a biometric pattern found frequently in the general population. The iris and the retina have higher degrees of distinctiveness than hand or finger geometry.

4 Biometrics as Authentication…
Something you are – Biometric Increasing level of security Increasing convenience Something you know – PIN, password Relating Biometric to authentication. order of least secure and least convenient to most secure and most convenient. Something you have – card, token

5 Definition (contd.) Identification Verification Who is Who?
“one-to-many” search (1:N) Used in identifying criminals Verification Is this Him/Her? “one-to-one” search (1:1) Used for physical or computer access Biometrics are used for human recognition which consists of identification and verification. With identification, the biometric system asks and attempts to answer the question, “Who is Who?” In an identification application, the biometric device reads a sample and compares that sample against every record or template in the database. This type of comparison is called a “one-to-many” search (1:N). Identification applications are common when the goal is to identify criminals and terrorists. Verification occurs when the biometric system asks and attempts to answer the question, “Is this Him?” after the user claims to be X. In a verification application, the biometric system requires input from the user, at which time the user claims his identity via a password, token, or user name. This user input points the system to a template in the database. The system also requires a biometric sample from the user. It then compares the sample to or against the user-defined template. This is called a “one-to-one” search (1:1). The system will either find or fail to find a match between the two. Verification is commonly used for physical or computer access.

6 Biometric Technologies…
Fingerprint Fingerprint pattern read & matched electronically Iris Recognition Measurement of the Iris pattern of the eye Facial Recognition Recording spatial geometry of distinguishing features Speaker/Voice Recognition Voice or speaker recognition uses vocal characteristics for identification FINGERPRINT: The biometric device involves users placing their finger on a platen for the print to be electronically read. The minutiae are then extracted by the vendor’s algorithm, which also makes a fingerprint pattern analysis. IRIS SCAN: Measures the iris pattern in the colored part of the eye. Iris patterns are formed randomly. As a result, the iris patterns in a person’s left and right eyes differ. FACIAL RECOGNITION: records the spatial geometry of distinguishing features of the face. Different vendors use different methods of facial recognition, however, all focus on measures of key features of the face. Because a person’s face can be captured by a camera from some distance away, facial recognition has a clandestine or covert capability. Speaker / Voice Recognition: Voice or speaker recognition uses vocal characteristics to identify individuals using a pass-phrase.

7 Facial Recognition Based on ability to recognize faces Nodal points
80 nodal points on the face E.g.: Distance between eyes, width of nose, Cheekbones, Chin etc “Face-Print” – code of the face Numerical Code String of numbers Facial recognition software is based on the ability to first recognize faces, which is a technological feat in itself, and then measure the various features of each face. If you look in the mirror, you can see that your face has certain distinguishable landmarks. These are the peaks and valleys that make up the different facial features. These landmarks are known as nodal points. There are about 80 nodal points on a human face. Distance between eyes Width of nose Depth of eye sockets Cheekbones Jaw line Chin These nodal points are measured to create a numerical code, a string of numbers, that represents the face in a database. This code is called a faceprint. Only 14 to 22 nodal points are needed for a lot of “face recognition software” to complete the recognition process.

8 Facial Recognition (contd.)
Algorithm 1) Capture Image 2) Find Face on the image 3) Extract Features (to generate template) 4) Compare Templates 5) Declare Matches Show Example

9 Fingerprint Formation of a unique signature
Combination of Environmental and Genetic Factors : Position of foetus, density of amniotic fluid, DNA’s impact on each ridge The lowest mis-identification rate after Iris recognition Three main methods of capturing finger print : Thermal Imaging Capacitance Scanner Optical Reader

10 Thermal Imaging Sensor
The sensor uses the heat patterns of the finger to create slices of a person's fingerprint Each slice is then lined up using centering techniques

11 Capacitance and Optical
Capacitance Sensing : The plates act as capacitors Finger acts as third plate Capacitance under ridge higher Capacitance under valley lower Optical Sensing : Uses Charged Coupled Devices (CCD). An Array of photosites which allow a current to flow through when hit by photons. Darker areas are valleys and lighter areas are ridges. Capacitance will be higher under ridge than valley

12 Analysis of the Prints Typica : Minutiae Placement of ridges and
valleys 2) Bifurcations Splitting of lines into two and their recombining

13 Iris Recognition Background
Identifying persons without physical contact Used by the U.S. government, correctional facilities, nuclear utilities, banks, etc. The iris is the externally visible, colorful, donut-shaped organ surrounding the pupil of the eye.

14 Iris Recognition cont’d…(2)
Uniqueness of the Iris The iris is unique because of the morphogenesis of that organ. Stability of the Iris An iris is not normally contaminated with foreign material (eyeglasses or contact lenses.) It is not subject to deleterious effects of aging. The features of the iris remain stable and fixed from about one year of age until death.

15 Iris Recognition cont’d…(3)
Hamming Distance Calculation

16 Iris Recognition cont’d…(4)
Recognition Speed Determined by the speed of the processor and size of the database (normally less than two seconds). Sunglasses and colored contact lenses pose no impediment to recognition. Biggest Advantages Accuracy with an order of magnitude greater than other biometric systems.

17 Voice Recognition Automated process of identifying a specific individual's voice Sound signal is digitized Result is a simple yes/no decision Deployed in such areas as banking, account access, home PC and network access

18 Voice Recognition (cont…)
Advantages Easy to use and require no special training No need to periodically manage/change passwords Relatively inexpensive compared to other biometrics

19 Questions?

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