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Insect Management for the Organic Producer Insect Management for the Organic Producer Eric J. Rebek Associate Professor and State Extension Specialist.

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Presentation on theme: "Insect Management for the Organic Producer Insect Management for the Organic Producer Eric J. Rebek Associate Professor and State Extension Specialist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Insect Management for the Organic Producer Insect Management for the Organic Producer Eric J. Rebek Associate Professor and State Extension Specialist Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology Oklahoma State

2 Organic Options for Pest Management 4 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Strategies 1.Cultural control 2.Biological control 3.Physical/Mechanical control 4.Regulatory (legal) control 5.Chemical control (OMRI approved)

3 1. Cultural Control 4 Prevention: avoiding pest problems by modifying growing practices –Crop rotation to break pest cycle –Insect (and disease) resistance/tolerance –Polyculture –Trap crops –Sanitation

4 Crop Rotation YEAR 1YEAR 2

5 Crop Rotation 4 Corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) – eggs in soil –Avoid corn following corn –Note: Populations of Western corn rootworm and northern corn rootworms have adapted to corn-soybean rotations 4 Wireworms – larvae in soil –Avoid highly susceptible crops (e.g., root crops, corn, melons) following grassy sod or small grains –Note: some species remain as larvae for 3-6 years

6 Crop Rotation 4 White grubs (Phyllophaga spp.) – larvae in soil –Avoid corn, potatoes, strawberries following grassy sod –Note: some species remain as larvae for 2-3 years 4 Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) – adults in soil –Avoid repeated plantings of tomatoes, potatoes, or eggplant –Note: great distances and barriers to movement may be needed for adequate control

7 Insect Resistance/Tolerance 4 Insect-resistant crop varieties –Bt corn Transgenic resistance to caterpillars (e.g., corn earworm) –Glandular-haired alfalfa “Hairy” stems of certain alfalfa varieties inhibit potato leafhopper

8 Polyculture 4 Intercropping, cover crops, etc. 4 Crop diversification can: –Reduce attractiveness of crops to pests that specialize on certain crops Plant Apparency Hypothesis –Increase abundance and diversity of natural enemies that feed on pests Natural Enemies Hypothesis

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10 Trap Crops 4 Non-crop plants more attractive to pests than cash crop 4 Interplanted within crop or around perimeter of crop

11 Trap Crops 4 Sorghum and sunflower – leaf-footed bugs in southern tomatoes 4 Mustard – harlequin bugs in collards and other cole crops

12 Trap Crops 4 Wide variety of species – stink bugs in many cash crops 4 Hubbard squashes – cucumber beetle in cash crop squashes

13 Sanitation 4 Crop debris serves as harborage for pest insects 4 Remove and destroy debris 4 Burial, soil incorporation

14 2. Biological Control The 3 P’s: Predators, Parasites, Pathogens

15 P R E D A T O R S

16 Predators Predators: larger than their prey, eat many prey, fast moving, generalist eaters

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19 Oklahoma State UniversityTulsa County Master Gardeners

20 P A R A S I T O I D S

21 Parasites (Parasitoids) Parasitoids: smaller than prey, kill only one host, larvae are sedentary, many are specialists Parasitic wasps Parasitic flies

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24 P A T H O G E N S

25 Pathogens (Microbial Control) 4 Fungi –e.g., Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium spp. 4 Bacteria –e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis 4 Nematodes –e.g., Steinernema spp., Heterorhabditis spp. 4 Protozoa –e.g,. Nosema locustae

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27 Beauveria sp. Hymenostilbe sp. Gibellula sp. Erynia sp. Leafhopper Spider Cockroach Beetle Katydid Leafhopper

28 Biological Control (3 kinds) 4 Classical (Importation) –Reunite old enemies; introduce natural enemies from pest’s geographic origin 4 Augmentation –Add what you need; supplemental release 4 Conservation –Conserve naturally occurring natural enemies

29 Conservation Biological Control 4 Two main strategies: –Modify pesticide use to reduce exposure to natural enemies –Modify habitat in favor of natural enemy survival, longevity, and reproduction 4 Attract and retain naturally occurring predators and parasitoids in the crop –E-1023: Conserving beneficial arthropods in residential landscapes

30 How to Conserve the Good Bugs 4 Reduce amount/frequency of pesticide use 4 Apply when beneficials are not active 4 Use selective products (e.g., Bt for caterpillar pests) 4 Apply “sweet water” to attract natural enemies 4 Use plants that help feed or shelter beneficials

31 Beneficial Flowering Plants TansyGoldenrod ConeflowerCoreopsis SunflowerCosmos CarawayMustards DillMilkweed FennelBuckwheat YarrowSweet Clover Wild ParsnipAlfalfa Fava BeanHairy Vetch

32 3. Physical/Mechanical Control 4 Three main methods: –Barriers (exclusion) –Behavior modification –Destruction or killing

33 Exclusion 4 Floating row covers and screens – cabbage maggot, flea beetles, cabbageworms 4 Adhesives and burlap – caterpillar pests and aphid-tending ants 4 Trenches – Colorado potato beetle (only those crawling, not flying)

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36 Behavior Modification 4 Two general methods: –“Push-Pull” technology –Mating disruption

37 Push-Pull Technology 4 Repel (push) or attract (pull) insect pest away from crop 4 Use pheromones or other lures as baits 4 Trap crops can be considered a push-pull strategy 4 Visual attractants

38 Mating Disruption 4 Grape Berry Moth (Mid May): –Place 250 to 400 Isomate-GBM ropes/A (use 400/A in high-risk vineyards) –Prevents mating for 90 days in warm southern states –Not generally recommended in OK because of small size of vineyards (< 5 acres)

39 Killing 4 Crushing 4 Traps 4 Temperature 4 Suction

40 Killing 4 Crushing – squash bug eggs on foliage 4 Traps – boards placed between rows for squash bug nymphs and adults

41 Killing 4 Propane torches (flaming), hot-water immersion, steaming, solar heating – wide variety of insect pests 4 Suction – Colorado potato beetle, lygus bug –Care must be taken to not harm natural enemies

42 Additional Resources 4 Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers –www.anbp.org (Info on Biological Control) 4 National Sustainable Agricultural Information Service (ATTRA) –https://attra.ncat.org 4 Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) –www.sare.org 4 IPM Oklahoma! –entoplp.okstate.edu/ipm (Info on IPM)


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