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The pesticide Paradox in IPM Risk-Benefit Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "The pesticide Paradox in IPM Risk-Benefit Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 The pesticide Paradox in IPM Risk-Benefit Analysis

2 IPM: is all about compatibility

3 Insecticides

4 Insecticide Definition Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest (US EPA 2002)

5 It has been said in the 30s! “Biological and chemical control are considered…as the two edges of the same sword…nature’s own balance provides the major part of protection…insecticides should be used so as to interfere with natural control of pests as little as possible” (Hoskins et al 1939)

6 IPM remains compromising between: Environmental/human health advocacy Industries that need to use insecticides in order to prevent economic lost.

7 The impact of pesticides within IPM depends on: The pesticide The pest The management situation

8 Pesticides and Cotton

9 Boll-weevil eradication program

10 Pesticides are compatible with some IPM techniques Plowing Host-plant resistance Physical barriers

11 Pesticides and Bio-control Natural enemy resistance

12 Natural enemies tolerate different insecticides differently Variation observed within insecticides classes. Differential response of parasitoids versus predators.

13 Not only pesticides can interfere with IPM Bacillus thuringiensis Cinnibar moth feeding on tansy ragwood Gypsy moth Western Spruce budworm

14 Fungicides and herbicides might affect natural enemies

15 Fungicides and Bio-control

16 Sub-lethal effects Natural enemies might produce fewer viable eggs. Repellent effects

17 Colorado potato beetle and Beauveria bassiana

18 Purple loosetrife, beetles and mosquitoes Purple loosetrife Galerucella sp

19 Water Hyacinth weevils and herbicides

20 Insecticides are one of the four building blocks of IPM Chemical Biological Cultural Plant resistance IPM


22 Improving pesticide selectivity Timing e.g. Apply before the arrival of natural enemies Placement e.g. Apply in first two thirds of plant only. Apply insecticide to the middle of every other row. Pesticide application just next to seed.

23 Refuge!

24 Pesticides formulation might make a difference! Dust is more toxic to beneficials than wetable powders or emulsifiable concentrates.

25 Pesticides formulation might make a difference! Granular applications of certain pesticides do not reduce the number of natural enemies in certain crops but foliar applications of the same pesticide might cause substantial reductions.

26 Pesticides formulation might make a difference! Systemic pesticides will protect some natural enemies as well.

27 Pheromones are a good way to incorporate insecticide use in IPM

28 The greatest treath to many IPM programs is the misapplication of pesticides


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