3 Session Objectives After this session you will be able to Understand what is meant by research designWhat are its different elementsHow to write design elementsWhat is a proposalWhy to write a proposalHow to write a proposalAzra Naheed Center for Research and DevelopmentSuperior University Lahore
4 Session Outline Research design Proposal Ethical consideration IntroductionPurpose statementObjectives of the researchSignificance of the studyMethodology and MethodsResearch questions and hypothesislimitations and delimitationEthical considerationProposalwhy proposalStructure of proposalAzra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
5 Research topics What type of format should a radio station adopt? Which songs should a radio station playWhat type of hosts do listeners want on a radio station’s morning showHow do viewers evaluate a television pilot for new TV showWhy is a current TV program not performing as well as was plannedHow effective is advertising on TV, radio, and in all types of printWhich ads do readers see most often in their local newspaperWhy are newspaper subscriptions decliningWhat should a politician include in campaign messages?Who should be the spokesperson for a new consumer productWho should be the host of a new TV game showAre there more violent acts on TV now than 5 years agoWhat are the elements of successful magazine cover pageWhy don’t employees read their company’s internal newspaperMedia, crime, and criminal justice: images, realities, and policies
6 RESEARCH DESIGNA plan of what data to gather, from whom, how and when to collect the data, and how to analyze the data obtainedComponents of Research DesignIntroductionPurpose statementObjectives of the researchSignificance of the studyMethodology and MethodsResearch questions and hypothesisLimitations and delimitation
7 The Introduction Components of introduction Introduction is the opening part of the proposal that justifies the problem to be researched and clarifies the significance of the proposed study in order to establish a framework for research.Components of introductionBackground of the studyThe research problemStudies that have addressed the problemDeficiencies in the studiesThe significance of the study13-Apr-17Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
8 E x a m p l eOver the past ten to fifteen years, various arguments have been made that firm’s human resources may be its sole source of sustainable competitive advantage(Ferris et al, 1999). The way in which internal resources contribute toward a firm achieving sustainable competitive advantage has become known as resource based view (Barney & Arikan, 2001) the resource base approach contends that organizations can develop a sustained competitive advantage only if its activities create value in a unique way, one that competitors cannot easily copy (Barney, 1991) this approach has been used as the theoretical grounding that posits that HRM can have a positive impact on firm performance (Wright et al, 2001). Therefore HRM has now become the crucial ingredient in the development process of the developing countries like Pakistan. Benell (1994) and Budhwar and Debrah (2001) disclosed that many developing countries are trapped by outdated and ineffective HR systems that put unintended roadblocks in their way………….Quality of Education is one of the major factors accelerating the development of a country and is the most important instrument in achieving the desired objectives of economic development. (Economic Survey of Pakistan: 2005z-06)……. In this regards, the role of teachers, as well as their performance in attaining and maintaining the quality of education is above any question……..
9 E x a m p l eThough much budget is spent on the administrative side of higher education development (curricula development, re-structuring, etc.), less attention is given to the underlying dimensions of Teachers performance…….. . Therefore, the present study is aim to explore the perceptions of teacher’s performance in higher education sector of Pakistan using HR practices: recruitment, training, growth opportunities, rewards, and participation. Therefore, the present study is aim to explore the perceptions of teacher’s performance in higher education sector of Pakistan using HR practices: recruitment, training, growth opportunities, rewards, and participation. With all these issues in mind the main purpose of this sequential mixed methods study is to explore teacher’s views about HRM practices and performance in first phase with intent of using this information in the second phase to generalize the findings. In particular, most of the research exploring the HR practices-performance relationship has focused on the development countries & manufacturing industry. Too few studies have focused on developing countries and performance at employee level.
10 Purpose Statement Why Purpose Statement The purpose statement indicates “why you want to do the study and what you intend to accomplish”(Locke et al, 2000)Why Purpose StatementIt is the most important statement in an entire research study.It conveys the overall intention of a proposed study.It establishes the direction for the research.Qualitative ResearchIn qualitative research we use the worlds like explore, understand, or discover and we have focus on single phenomena.Quantitative ResearchIn quantitative research we use words like determine, identify, or compare and we have focus on comparing and relating two or more variables.Mixed Methods ResearchIn Mixed methods research we focus on both qualitative and quantitative research and mention the design with rationaleAzra Naheed Center for Research and DevelopmentSuperior University Lahore
11 E x a m p l eIn order for higher educational institutions to be successful they must be able to employ people who will stay with the business and perform at high levels, research indicates that employees who are committed and satisfied with the organization are more likely to perform well. So the implementation of HRM practices is one way that educational institutions can build commitment & satisfaction among teachers to enhance performance. Therefore, The purpose of this two phase, sequential mixed methods study will be, firstly to explore and understand the teacher’s perception and viewpoint about HRM practices and performance in the Higher Education Sector of Pakistan and to further explore the organizational factors that support the optimum performance among the teachers using Semi-structured interview. Secondly, themes from the qualitative data will then be used to develop a questionnaire to quantify the findings and furthermore to examine whether the both findings complement each other or not.
12 Objectives of the study Objectives are the steps you are going to take to answer your research questions to fulfill the purpose of the research studyObjectives can beMain objectivesSub objectives13-Apr-17Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
13 E x a m p l e The objectives of this research study are as follows To explore teacher’s view on performance that how they define performance and what they see as good, bad or acceptable performance.To explore teacher’s experiences about HRM practices and how they feel about these practices?To explore teacher’s opinion about organizational factor that contributes to their performance.To establish the basis for evolving effective and performance oriented human resource practices.To facilitate the policy making bodies to evolve a comprehensive view of teacher’s performance and thus undertake necessary administrative adjustments.
14 Significance of the study A significance sections elaborates on the importance and implication of a study for researcher, practitioners, and policy maker. In designing the section one might include3 or 4 ways in which the study adds to scholarly research and literature in the field3 or 4 ways in which the study helps improve practice3 or 4 reasons why the study will improve policy13-Apr-17Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
15 E x a m p l eThe present study will be significant in number of ways. It will contribute to the body of knowledge by:Firstly, since the present area is highly under researched in Pakistan. No study has been found to explore the HR perceptions in teacher’s performance in educational setting of Pakistan. Therefore, the present study assumes that the findings of the present study will help the managers in universities of Pakistan in particular and those in developing countries in general to answer the long standing question of how to enhance teacher’s performance.Secondly, no research has been found on organizational commitment and satisfaction as mediators of HR practices and performance conducted in educational setting and especially in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study will prove to be a significant contribution in this area with the assumption that fostering organizational commitment and satisfaction among academic staff has become important or rather becomes imperative for the universities in Pakistani context (Chughtai & Zafar, 2006)
16 the present study will aim to provide guidelines to education managers to come up with the policies which would enable them to attract and retain their top level faculty at their respective universities. Thus Identifying those HRM practices that tend to enhance commitment and satisfaction which leads to teacher’s performance would be a significantbenefit for the management of Educational institutions and similarly it will enhance the quality of education.Employing mix methods research which has not been used in this area and hence this will be a significant methodological advancement.Examining the applicability of the discussed Western concepts and theories in an Eastern developing country (Pakistan) in order to develop a cross-contextual generalization of these concepts.E x a m p l e
17 Methodology and Methods The methodology includes the methods, procedures, and techniques used to collect and analyze information.It should generally include statements about:Site and sampleMethods of data collectionData analysis proceduresWhy Methodologyit clarifies the procedures and methods of data collection and analysisIt increases the efficiency and authenticity of the research
18 The most important thing in the selection of approach is the nature of research problem as my research problem is twofold in nature. So I have decided to choose mixed methods research approach as to accommodate my first objective of exploring and understanding the complexity of the contextual variances in context of Pakistan. I will use interpretivism as a research philosophy and use semi-structured interview method under the umbrella of qualitative paradigm. Then to cope with my second objective i.e. to deal with the validity, reliability, and generalizability, positivism will be chosen supported by survey method in the circumference of quantitative paradigm. Furthermore this decision is supported by the rationale of availing the merits and overcoming the demerits of both approaches as discussed by Creswell (2003), the use of multiple data sets can inform the research, by yielding insight and methodological changes that improve the study and strengthen findings as well as collecting diverse types of data best provides an understanding of a research problem.E x a m p l e
19 Selecting Mixed Methods Approach on the basis of Pragmatic Knowledge Claims I have decided to collect the qualitative and quantitative data in phases using Sequential Exploratory Design in sequential strategies. A visual view of the sequential strategy is as follows During this process qualitative data will be collected using semi-structured interviews in the first phase of the study through open ended questions supported by probes and prompts to get deep insights and to keep the respondent on track respectively with time and cost saving approach resulting categorization for thematic as well as descriptive analysis. purposeful sampling will be used to choose experienced respondents regarding the phenomena under consideration.E x a m p l e
20 TheoryTheory is the standard principle that defines the relationship of two or more variablesQualitative Research:In case of qualitative research theory is an outcome of the whole research process by finding the answers to the research questionsQuantitative ResearchIn case of quantitative research theory is used as bases to be verified through the acceptance or rejection of hypothesis using statistical results.Mixed Methods Researchin case of Mixed Methods Research theory is both developed and also verified.13-Apr-17Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
21 E x a m p l eThe present study will utilize the theoretical concept of Social Exchange Theory(Blau, 1964) and norms of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960) and expectancy theory which will form the theoretical basis of the research. The social exchange theory and norms of reciprocity will be used to explain the basis of employee commitment and satisfaction as researchers have noted that exchange ideology and norms ofreciprocity significantly increase satisfaction and commitment among employees (Witt, 1992; Witt et al, 2001). Furthermore, the Expectancy theory provides evidence that links HRM practices to processes that facilitate high individual performance (Guest, 1997).
22 Research Questions and Hypothesis Research questions are interrogative statements or questions that the researcher seeks to answerHypothesis are predictive statements that the researcher holds about the relationship among variables to be tested13-Apr-17Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
23 (Main question)HRM practices and performance among teachers in Pakistan.(Sub questions)What are the teacher’s experiences about Human Resource management Practices and how they feel about that?How do teachers perceive about their own performance and what they perceive as good, bad or acceptable performance?What are the teacher’s opinions about organizational factors that contribute to their performance?
24 Limitations and Delimitations possible weaknesses of the study that were not / could not be controlled.Delimitations:boundaries set by the researcher that limit the generalizability of findings.13-Apr-17Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
25 Limitations and Delimitations: Due to limitations of resourcesThis study is restricted to the Teachers with 02 or more years of experience (02 years are supposed to be minimum)This study is restricted only to the teachers of higher education sector in Pakistan.:
26 Ethical Considerations Ethics are the standards of behavior to be adopted while interacting to other people during research in a way thatPeople must be respected and seen not as passive sources of data but as people whose rights and welfare must be protected.Physical risk, psychological harm must be minimized.Risks and benefits from studies should be distributed fairly and evenly in populations.Why Ethical ConsiderationsThe aim of discussing research ethics is to encourage integrity in the conduct of business Research and practices among of scientists, scholars, and professionals13-Apr-17Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
27 The following ethical issues will be kept under consideration during the research process and aftermathsDetermining the problem statement it is been ensured through pilot study that the research would benefit the individuals been studied and further it will be ensured that the participants would not be marginalized or disempowered at any step.The purpose of study is made clear and simple to be easily understood by the readers as well as the respondents to avoid any ambiguity at any end.While anticipating the data collection, the wellbeing of the respondents will be ensured through securing their right to participate and withdraw at any time voluntarily.Precisely yet comprehensive information (Debriefing) will be provided to respondents in order to make them clear about all aspects, objectives and outcomes of the research.Mutual consent form, permission letter and any other written approval if needed will be dually signed by both the researcher and the respondent.Prior time adjustment will be made in order to avoid any interruption in the flow at research site.It will be made sure to secure and protect the information gathered from respondent to avoid any harmful consequences for themE x a m p l e
28 E x a m p l eThrough well managed coding labeling and recording system the anonymity (if desired by the respondent) of the respondent will be guaranteed.Prior permission will be taken regarding the storage of data after the completion of the study for a certain time period in the ownership of the researcher.In order to overcome the potential ethical issues in writing the research regarding use of language, suppressing, falsifying or other fraudulent practicesthe complete details (in coding and anonymous form) will be released so that the reader would determine by himself the credibility of the study.
29 ProposalProposal is the written document that describes the topic, Problem, design, and methodologies to be adopted to conduct the proposed research.Why ProposalThe development of proposal for any research study is essential becauseIt allows the researcher to plan and review the steps of the project.It serves as a guide throughout the investigation.It forces time and budget estimates
31 Outline of the structure of a proposal Title2. IntroductionBackground of the study (Sectoral Brief)The research problemStudies that have addressed the problemDeficiencies in the studiesThe significance of the studyThe purpose statement3. PurposeThe purpose or study, aim of the project and reasons for the research designThe research questions and hypotheses4. Philosophical Foundationsworldview and philosophical assumptions for using specific research approach.Literature Review6. Theoretical Framework7. Methodology and MethodsSite and sampleData collection proceduresData analysis procedures8. Potential Ethical issues9. Reference and appendixes