Presentation on theme: "The Promise of Non-Cognitive Factors: Basic Concepts and Evidence Diana Gruman, WWU Mike Hubert, OPSI Washington School Counselor Association Conference,"— Presentation transcript:
The Promise of Non-Cognitive Factors: Basic Concepts and Evidence Diana Gruman, WWU Mike Hubert, OPSI Washington School Counselor Association Conference, Seattle February 2014
Objectives for Today Provide an overview of the latest research on noncognitive skills Define key concepts Connect the findings on noncognitive skills to school counseling practice Provide a sample of our favorite resources to learn more about the topic and potential interventions
Sources of Inspiration & Knowledge We would like to acknowledge the following sources as the foundation of this presentation: 1.CCSR Literature Review (2012): “Teaching Adolescents to Become Learners.” 2.DOE-Office of Ed. Tech. Report (2013): “Promoting Grit, Tenacity and Perservance.” 3.Carol Dweck (2007): “Mindset.” 4.Paul Tough (2012): “How Children Succeed.”
Making the Case Posted: May 2013 http://new.ted.com/talks/angela_lee_duckworth_the_key_to_success_grit
Cognitive Factors Cognitive: “Relating to, or involving conscious mental activities (such as thinking, understanding, learning, and remembering).” (Merriam-Webster: m-w.com) – Some ways we measure cognitive skills: Grasp of Content Knowledge Writing Skills Problem Solving Ability
Noncognitive Factors Noncognitive: Attributes, dispositions, social skills, attitudes, and intrapersonal resources, independent of intellectual ability—that high- achieving individuals draw upon to accomplish success. (OET Report, 2013) TURN AND TALK: What are the factors you are hearing and reading about??
What’s in a Name? Habits of Mind (Dewey, 1880-1940) Natural Development (Montessori, 1910-50) Internal Locus of Control (Rotter, 1954) Self efficacy (Bandura, 1986) Student Agency Learner Attributes Social-Emotional Learning 21 st Century Skills or Soft Skills Character Education Emotional Intelligence Teaching the Whole Child
https://ccsr.uchicago.edu/publications Five Categories of Noncognitive Factors: Academic Behaviors Academic Perseverance Academic Mindsets Learning Strategies Social Skills Academic Performance (Course Grades)
Socio-Cultural Context School & Classroom Context Academic Mindsets Academic Perseverance Academic Behaviors Learning Strategies Academic Performance Social Skills
Can these skills be taught? Learned? Research shows that some noncognitive factors can be shaped in all children: Academic Mindset- I can grow my ability and competence with effort Effortful Control—I can push through the “boring” stuff Strategies and Tactics—I can define my tasks, monitor progress and change course if needed
#1 Academic Behaviors Behaviors associated with being a “good student” – Regular attendance – Ready to engage the work – Participating in class discussions – Completing assignments
Connection to SC Practice Talk, Turn and Share What ways do school counselors play a role in improving the academic behaviors in students? Which ones of these methods are evidence- based?
#2 Learning Strategies The processes and tactics employed to aid in learning such as: – Study skills – Metacognitive strategies ( monitoring one’s own comprehension) – Self-regulated learning ( ability to self correct) – Goal setting & time management
Connection to SC Practice Talk, Turn and Share What ways do school counselors play a role in improving the learning strategies in students? Which ones of these methods are evidence- based?
#3 Academic Mindsets Beliefs, attitudes, or ways of perceiving oneself in relation to learning – I belong in this academic community – My ability and competency grow with my effort – I can succeed at this – This work has value for me
Growth Mindset When faced with failure or challenge, people with a GROWTH mindset: Pay attention to learning information, and so do better on future tests. Focus on what they are learning, rather than focusing on how they feel. Try out new ways of doing things. Use self-motivating statements such as ‘The harder it gets, the harder I try’. When faced with tests which are impossible to pass, they consider other factors rather than blaming their intellect (e.g. “This test was beyond my ability for now.
Growth-mindset thinking results in: a love for learning and self-improvement a desire to be challenged a willingness to work for positive results a belief that you can control the outcomes in your life with effort and practice the ability to learn from mistakes and failures emotional resilience
Fixed Mindset When faced with failure or challenge, people with a FIXED mindset: Do not pay attention to learning information Get depressed, lose self-esteem Say to themselves ‘I am not smart.’ Under-represent past successes and over- represent failures (I NEVER do things right) Explain the cause of events as something stable about them. (I am ALWAYS this way!)
Fixed-mindset thinking results in: a false sense of superiority, undermined by a deep sense of self-doubt a fear of failure; refusal to take risks a feeling that failure permanently defines you as a loser the belief that only untalented, ungifted people have to work for success; effort somehow reduces you a desire to blame others or outside circumstances when things don’t go your way
Academic Mindsets Evidence Sense of belonging – Learning is a social activity, constructed through interaction Belief of ability – Those that increase effort, display perseverance and succeed Self-efficacy – We engage in activities in which we feel confident Value – When activity is connected to our preferred future, we are more likely to pursue it
Connection to SC Practice Talk, Turn and Share What ways do school counselors play a role in improving the growth mindsets in students? Which ones of these methods are evidence- based?
#4 Social Skills Interpersonal qualities such as: – Cooperation – Assertion – Responsibility – Empathy
And are They Important? Teacher Beliefs about SEL The Missing Piece: A National Teacher Survey on How Social and Emotional Learning Can Empower Children and Transform Schools - http://www.casel.org/library/the-missing-piece
Connection to SC Practice Talk, Turn and Share What ways do school counselors play a role in improving the social skills of students? Which ones of these methods are evidence- based?
#5 Academic Perseverance A student’s ability to remain focused and engaged in school work despite distractions, setbacks, or obstacles – Grit – Self-control – Tenacity – Delayed Gratification
Grit and Perseverance Factors essential to an individual’s capacity to strive for and succeed at long-term and higher-order goals, and to persist in the face of the array of challenges and obstacles encountered throughout schooling and life (OET Report, 2013)
Academic Perseverance Evidence Perseverance is a trait that is not directly malleable. The evidence can be found in academic mindsets that encourage perseverance and the adoption of learning strategies
What type of learning environment promotes grit and perseverance? 1) Opportunities to take on appropriate challenges (in the child’s Zone of Prox. Devpt) 2) Rigorous and Supportive Environment: – Fair and respectful climate, conveys high expectations, – Emphasizes effort over ability, and provides necessary tangible resources—materials, human, and time.
Connection to SC Practice Talk, Turn and Share What ways do school counselors play a role in improving the perseverance of students? Which ones of these methods are evidence- based?
Teaching the Whole Child Student-Centered Discipline Teacher Language Responsibility & Choice Warmth & Support Cooperative Learning Classroom Discussions Self-Reflection & Self- Assessment Balanced Instruction Academic Press and Expectations Competency Building – Modeling, Practicing, Feedback, & Coaching Center on Great Teaching and Learning at AIR January 2014 “Teaching the Whole Child: Instructional Practices That Support Social-Emotional Learning in Three Teacher Evaluation Frameworks.” http://www.gtlcenter.org/
Barriers and Potential Solutions Adverse Childhood Experiences http://acestudy.org/ http://acestoohigh.com/ Trauma Informed Schools http://acestoohigh.com/2013/08/20/spokanesch ools/ http://acestoohigh.com/2013/08/20/spokanesch ools/ Restorative Justice and School Discipline https://aclu-wa.org/blog/restorative-discipline- pays-suspensions-down-grades-behavior- improved https://aclu-wa.org/blog/restorative-discipline- pays-suspensions-down-grades-behavior- improved
RESOURCES BOOKS How Children Succeed, Paul Tough (2012) Mindset, Carol Dweck (2007) WEBSITES -CASEL: http://www.casel.org/http://www.casel.org/ -Chicago/CCSR: csr.uchicago.edu/ -Center for Great Teaching at AIR http://www.gtlcenter.org/
Growth Mindset Resources Mary Cay Ricci (2013), “Mindsets in the Classroom.” http://www.mindsetworks.com/free-resources/ http://classteaching.wordpress.com/2013/04/07 /developing-a-growth-mindset/ http://ams.auburnschl.edu/pages/AuburnMS/C ORE/Additional_CORE_Activities/Mindset_Act ivities
"The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically... Intelligence plus character - that is the goal of true education." - Martin Luther King, Jr.