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©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 1 A Unit on the Industrial Revolution in the United States
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 2 Why? SS.A.5.4.1: The student knows the causes of the Industrial Revolution and its economic, political, and cultural effects on American Society.SS.A.5.4.1: The student knows the causes of the Industrial Revolution and its economic, political, and cultural effects on American Society.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 3 The Big “Why?” for the Unit Can societies have winners and losers at the same time?Can societies have winners and losers at the same time? Can societal groups win and lose at the same time?Can societal groups win and lose at the same time? How are the winners and losers reconciled?How are the winners and losers reconciled?
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 4 Getting There Lesson 1: From the Farm to the Factory Lesson 2: Big Business—Monkey Business Lesson 3: Labor Pains Lesson 4: Inventing a New Life Unit Project: Presenting to the Brooking Institute
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 5 Along the Way We’ll work to improve… –listening skills. –reading skills. –writing skills.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 6 From the Farm to the Factory The Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in the United States
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 7 Lesson 1 Questions Were people’s lives better or worse after this period in United States history?Were people’s lives better or worse after this period in United States history? Is progress good?Is progress good?
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 8 What do you know? Remember being in the eighth grade?Remember being in the eighth grade? Remember anything from eighth grade social studies?Remember anything from eighth grade social studies?
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 9 In the Beginning, Before 1840
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 10 Industrialization Came Late to America People came to America for the plentiful land.People came to America for the plentiful land. –They were primarily farmers prior to 1750. –They didn’t want to be confined to a factory. –There was a shortage of labor to run machines.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 11 Industrialization Came Late to America There was little money for investment.There was little money for investment. The market for manufactured goods was small.The market for manufactured goods was small. Great Britain guarded her manufacturing secrets.Great Britain guarded her manufacturing secrets.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 12 Causes for the Industrial Revolution in the U.S. Eli Whitney started the process.Eli Whitney started the process. –He was considered the father of manufacturing. –He invented a machine that started the Industrial Revolution in America. –Next, he invented one that continued the revolution.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 13 Causes for the Industrial Revolution in the U.S. Early industrial espionage brought textile machines to the U.S.Early industrial espionage brought textile machines to the U.S. Cotton ginCotton gin –Made cotton production profitable –Provided raw material for textile factories
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 14 Types of Industry- Location The first factories were textile mills in New England for several reasons.The first factories were textile mills in New England for several reasons. –Poor soil encouraged manufacturing not farming. –The dense population provided workers.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 15 Types of Industry- Location Seaports were available to import raw materials.Seaports were available to import raw materials. Rivers provided a source of power.Rivers provided a source of power. A shortage of goods from England inspired new mills.A shortage of goods from England inspired new mills.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 16 New Industries Flourished Firearms manufacture was an important industry.Firearms manufacture was an important industry. Remember Eli Whitney.Remember Eli Whitney. –He invented interchangeable parts for guns. –This paved the way for mass production. –This gave the North superiority in weaponry for the military.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 17 The Ball’s Rolling The Ball’s Rolling One invention led to another.One invention led to another. –360 patents were issued between 1790-1800. –28,000 patents were issued between 1850-1860.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 18 The Business of Industry Legal status changed.Legal status changed. The principle of limited liability was established.The principle of limited liability was established. –Companies sold shares in a business (incorporation). –Each share is like buying a small part of the company. –Shareholders are liable for only their own shares.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 19 The Business of Industry Laws of “free incorporation” were passed.Laws of “free incorporation” were passed. –Businesses could incorporate without legislative approval. This allowed for more capital for industries to expand.This allowed for more capital for industries to expand.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 20 The Politics of Industry Only male landowners could vote.Only male landowners could vote. Most factory workers did not qualify.Most factory workers did not qualify. Politics were run by the “upper” class.Politics were run by the “upper” class. They fought efforts to improve working conditions.They fought efforts to improve working conditions.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 21 Labor Labor was scarce before 1840.Labor was scarce before 1840. Working conditions were poor.Working conditions were poor. Women and children were important sources for labor.Women and children were important sources for labor.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 22 Working Conditions Working conditions were poor in the factories.Working conditions were poor in the factories. They were poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated.They were poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated. Hours were long.Hours were long. Wages were low.Wages were low.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 23 Child Labor Scarce labor made factories turn to using children.Scarce labor made factories turn to using children. Half of the factory laborers were children under ten years old in 1820.Half of the factory laborers were children under ten years old in 1820. Conditions caused children to be mentally, emotionally, and physically stunted.Conditions caused children to be mentally, emotionally, and physically stunted.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 24 Working Women Women in the work force were uncommon.Women in the work force were uncommon. Mostly single women worked.Mostly single women worked. Only about 20% of women worked in 1830.Only about 20% of women worked in 1830.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 25 Working Women Opportunities to be self- supporting were scarce.Opportunities to be self- supporting were scarce. Being a nurse, domestic servant, or teacher were the only opportunities available outside the factory.Being a nurse, domestic servant, or teacher were the only opportunities available outside the factory.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 26 Women in the Factories Most factory work was in the textile industry.Most factory work was in the textile industry. –Most women worked six days a week. –They worked from twelve to thirteen hours a day (from dawn to dark). –Most female factory workers came from the farm.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 27 Lowell, Mass. as an Example Women workers came from the farm.Women workers came from the farm. They were supervised by company matrons.They were supervised by company matrons. They lived in company boarding houses.They lived in company boarding houses. These women provided a disciplined and docile work force.These women provided a disciplined and docile work force.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 28 A Contrast, How the Rest Lived Factory owners became part of the upper class.Factory owners became part of the upper class. They joined the landowners and merchants.They joined the landowners and merchants. –They reaped the benefits of labor. –Fortunes were amassed. –The profits were rarely passed on to the workers.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 29 A Contrast, How the Rest Lived The middle class expanded.The middle class expanded. It now included factory managers and supervisors.It now included factory managers and supervisors.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 30 Improving Life? Laws were passed to improve working conditions.Laws were passed to improve working conditions. –The vote was extended to working men. –Laws finally passed that limited the work day to ten hours.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 31 Improving Life? Child labor laws were being considered.Child labor laws were being considered. Free public education was beginning to be offered.Free public education was beginning to be offered.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 32 Improving Life? The standard of living improved.The standard of living improved. –Workers got better wages. –Availability of cheaper products provided more and varied items. The gap between the rich and poor was somewhat offset by these factors.The gap between the rich and poor was somewhat offset by these factors.
©2003 www.BeaconLearningCenter.com 33 Brother Against Brother, the Civil War The first part of the Industrial Revolution ends at this point.The first part of the Industrial Revolution ends at this point. Manufacturing increased in the North.Manufacturing increased in the North. The end of this conflict brought the second part of the Industrial Revolution.The end of this conflict brought the second part of the Industrial Revolution.
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