Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution. There was a shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production Technological innovations brought production from."— Presentation transcript:
The Industrial Revolution
There was a shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production Technological innovations brought production from farmhouse to factories –Invented in Britain in 1750; smuggled to U.S. –Beginning of the US Factory System US slow to embrace factory system –Scarce labor –Little capital –Superiority of British factories
Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Born in England on June 9, 1768 and worked in British factories. Slater came to US to make his fortune in the textile industry. Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern industrial cotton mill of its day "Father of the American Factory System." Samuel Slater was the "Father of the American Factory System."
The Lowell Mills H Francis C Lowell came to the US to build British factories & met up with Boston mechanic, Paul Moody Together they improved the mill and invented a power loom that revolutionized textile manufacturing
The Lowell System Lowell, Massachusetts, 1832 HHired young New England farm girls HThey were supervised on and off the job HWorked 6 days a week, 13 hours a day HEscorted to church on Sunday
Women & the Economy H1850: 10% of white women were working for pay outside home Vast majority of working women were single Left paying jobs upon marriage HIdea of “Cult of domesticity” develops This is a new concept of the perfect women: homemaker HJobs outside of the home empowered married women Increased power & independence of women in the home usually led to a decline in family size
Workers & Wage Slaves HLong hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions, lack of heat, etc. Labor unions illegal H1820: 1/2 of industrial workers were children under 10
Workers & Wage Slaves H1820s & 1830s: Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved conditions Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better conditions H1830s & 1840s: Dozens of strikes for higher wages or 10-hour day 1837 depression hurt union membership
1830s, Industrialization grew throughout the North… Southern cotton shipped to Northern textile mills was a good working relationship.
Resourcefulness & Experimentation Americans were willing to try anything. They were first copiers, then innovators. Americans were willing to try anything. They were first copiers, then innovators > 41 patents approved > 4,357 patents approved > 41 patents approved > 4,357 patents approved
Eli Whitney’s cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry. He is also noted for the concept of mass production and interchangeable parts by creating dyes for pistols and rifles. Very important early pioneer in America’s industrial revolution. Cotton Production The invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery.
Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine HCotton gin invented in 1793 50 times more effective than hand picking HRaising cotton more profitable South needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton” HNew England factories flourish with Southern cotton
H 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. H The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through H 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. H The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930.
John Deere & the Steel Plow
Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper
Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph “WHAT GOD HATH WROUGHT”
Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858
Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine Perfected by Singer Gave boost to northern industry Became foundation for ready-made clothing industry Led many women into factories
From left to right: Eli Whitney (cotton gin, interchangeable parts), Robert Fulton (steam boat), Thomas Edison (light bulb), Cyrus McCormick (reaper), Richard Hoe (automatic printing press)
american system H The inventions combined with greater transportation encourage economic growth H Protective tariff of 1816 (allows US factories to grow) H Americans are encouraged to buy American goods H 2 nd Bank of the United States HIt is recharted (approved to be continued) in 1816