Presentation on theme: "7th Grade UBD - Unit 5 – South Asia. Government and Politics- India has a constitutional government that ensures democratic rights. Economic Development-"— Presentation transcript:
Government and Politics- India has a constitutional government that ensures democratic rights. Economic Development- India has industry and commerce. Still, nearly half of the people are poor. Society and Culture- India is a leader in modern entertainment. Yet traditional entertainment and foods remain popular.
India has great deal of cultural diversity, or variety. Think about the idea of diversity. The United States is culturally diverse, too. Why do you think this is so? (5 minutes)
Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
India has preserved its democratic government despite many obstacles. India’s great size and diversity pose problems for the nation. Tensions between India and Pakistan have continued since partition. India tried to keep friendly relations with the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War.
Great Britain granted independence to India and Pakistan in 1947. Since then, India has built a tradition of democratic government. Its constitution set goals of justice, liberty, equality, and brotherhood. Elections in India are very competitive.
Like the United States, India has a federal system: power is divided between the federal government and the states. Voters elect candidates to local, state, and national offices.
India’s unity has faced severe tests. All of India has rarely in its history been unified under one government. Many forces threaten to tear India apart. They include religious conflict, regional differences.
India won independence just as the Cold War conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union began. India did not want to line up with either the United States or the Soviet Union so it adopted a policy of nonalignment.
Key Term Nonalignment- A country’s policy of avoiding alliances with any superpower.
To protect its borders, India has spent heavily on defense. In 1974, it successfully tested an atomic bomb. India claimed it wanted to develop nuclear power for peaceful purposes. But it has refused to sign a treaty that bans the use of nuclear weapons.
Key Term The Cold War- A time of tension between the United States and the former Soviet Union without actually war; it lasted from 1945 to 1991.
1. In what year did India and Pakistan gain independence from Great Britain? 2. Like the United States, India has a federal system where power is divided between what levels of government?
1. In what year did India and Pakistan gain independence from Great Britain? Great Britain granted independence to India and Pakistan in 1947. 2. Like the United States, India has a federal system where power is divided between what levels of government? India has a federal system where power is divided between the federal government and the state governments.
Reforms in India have encouraged economic growth. Despite progress India is still a country of contrasts between modern industrial centers and subsistence farmers. Caste is an obstacle to economic change, but efforts to ease caste restriction faces protests.
By the 1980s India’s economy was not growing. So the government turned to economic reforms. It cut back on regulations and privatized government run industries. Today, India ranks among the world’s leading industrial nations.
India has a mixed economy that combines government-run industries and private industries. The government also nationalized, or took over, the ownership of some industries. To protect Indian industries from foreign competition, the government restricted imports.
Key Term Nationalized- Ownership of industries taken over by the government.
India is a nation of contrasts. Small businesses thrive in villages. In other places, huge manufacturing centers make steel and other products. India’s cottage industries are valuable to the nation’s economy.
Key Term Cottage Industries- Small family businesses, where goods are made in the home.
Huge industrial centers are also important to India. Industry spreads out from India’s leading cities.
Good transportation has sped up India’s development. Rail transport is the most important. India has one of the world’s largest rail systems.
The caste system is still important in modern India. However, it is less rigid in cities because people of different castes mingle while working. The caste system remains strong in villages.
Only a minority of people enjoy the wealth India has produced. Great wealth and great poverty are a terrible contrast in today’s India. The rich and the large middle class enjoy a high standard of living while the poor struggle to simply survive.
1. How do living conditions of the wealthy compare with living conditions of the poor? 2. What do you think is the greatest problem facing India today? Explain why.
1. How do living conditions of the wealthy compare with living conditions of the poor? Wealthy people live in large houses with servants and own several cars. The children go to a private school and the family gets medical care whenever they need it. The poor struggle to survive in India. 2. What do you think is the greatest problem facing India today? Explain why. Students answers will vary.
India has varied rich traditions in dance and music. Even as India modernizes, its ancient tastes and culture remain vivid and alive.
Many of the food traditions of India, Pakistan, and the rest of the region are thousands of years old. They reflect religion, tradition, and culture.
India has several food traditions, including the use of a wide variety of spices. Hindus are strict vegetarians. As protein substitutes, Indian food often includes beans, peas and peanuts.
Key Term Vegetarian - A person who does not eat meat.
India and Pakistan tend to mix ingredients into thick spicy dishes commonly called curry. The curry is typically served hot with either rice or flatbread called naan. Indians and Pakistanis use the naan to scoop up the curry when they eat.
Because Pakistan is largely Muslim, cuisine there is made to specific Islamic practices regarding food preparation. For example, Pakistani foods don’t use pork. Rather, their traditional dishes include meats like chicken, lamb, and beef.
1. What do Indians and Pakistanis use to scoop up the curry when they eat? 2. Pakistani traditional dishes include meats like chicken, lamb, and beef as substitutes to what type of food?
1. What do Indians and Pakistanis use to scoop up the curry when they eat? Indians and Pakistanis use the naan, a type of bread, to scoop up the curry when they eat. 2. Pakistani traditional dishes include meats like chicken, lamb, and beef as substitutes to what type of food? Pakistani foods don’t use pork in traditional dishes.
What has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
Work with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)