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Procedure for Isoelectric Point of Milk: Making Curds & Whey Hands-on module for identifying the isoelectric point of milk and understanding pH. Food Safety Scientist Curriculum © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org This project was supported by the USDA NIFA grant number
iGrow.org pH: Food & Microogranisms Pathogenic Bacteria grow well at a pH of Meat & Milk have a pH of making them an excellent growth media for foodborne pathogens Fruits: Vegetables: Pathogens grow slowly with a pH BELOW 4.6 & can be minimized even more with a pH of 4.2 Increasing acidity has been used for centuries to preserve foods and is still used today. © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org
iGrow.org Lab Safety Protocol Lab coat is advised Keep long hair tied back away from face Wear closed toe shoes © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org
iGrow.org Properties of Milk Milk is a Colloid Colloid: A mixture of liquid and tiny particles that do not settle (unlike orange juice). Examples of Colloids: Glue, Cream, & Paint When Milk is heated, the proteins denature and with the addition of the acid the milk will begin to separate (coagulate) into solid particles (curds) and the remaining liquid is known as whey. Cheese is made from the curds (milk protein & casein) of milk either left unripened or through curing, another food preservation method Examples of unripened cheese: cottage, ricotta, cream cheese Examples of cured cheese: Cheddar, parmesan, jack, mozzarella, provolone © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org
iGrow.org Properties of Milk Continued Milk has a pH between The pH is controlled by a buffer system of three components: Phosphate, Citrate, & Carbonate When vinegar is added to lower the pH of the milk it inactivates the buffer system pH can decrease – reach isoelectric point Formation of curds © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org
iGrow.org Isoelectric Point in Milk Isoelectric Point: When a molecule carries neither a positive or negative charge In milk, the isoelectric point indicates when the protein, casein, no longer has a positive or negative charge The isoelectric point for casein is pH value of 4.6. Once 4.6 is reached, the casein protein will separate from the liquid and clump together. © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org
iGrow.org Procedure: Making Curds & Whey Supplies & Equipment per test: (Calibrated) pH Meter 450 mL (2 cups) Milk 10 mL (2 tsp.) White Distilled Vinegar 500 mL Beakers (or larger) Bunsen Burner Thermometer Colander or Cheese Cloth © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org
iGrow.org Isoelectric Point: Making Curds & Whey Make sure the pH meter is calibrated to ensure precision & accuracy when taking readings Measure 450 mL of milk into a 500+ mL beaker-Take 2 pH readings of the milk and record the average Take 2-pH readings of the vinegar and record the average © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org 1 2 3
iGrow.org Isoelectric Point: Making Curds & Whey Place the beaker on a Bunsen Burner and heat milk until it reaches 180°F Continuously check the temperature with a thermometer and stir the milk to prevent burning © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org
iGrow.org Isoelectric Point: Making Curds & Whey Once 180°F is reached, remove the milk carefully from the Bunsen burner Slowly pour 10 mL of white distilled vinegar into the milk. Stir occasionally. Once cooled, take a pH reading after adding the acid and record. © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org * Notice the change of consistency in the milk
iGrow.org Isoelectric Point: Making Curds & Whey Once the milk has cooled down, pour the beaker into a colander or filter though cheese cloth Filtering the milk separates the curds from the whey © 2014 Board of Regents, South Dakota State University iGrow.org * Why does the liquid (whey) now have a more opaque appearance?
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