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Ch. 17, Lesson 1: The Industrial Revolution

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1 Ch. 17, Lesson 1: The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution refers to the rapid changes in the organization of manufacturing industry that transformed countries from rural agricultural to urban industrial economies. It began in the late 18th century in the Midlands area of England, then spread throughout the country, into continental Europe, and to the northern United States. Ch. 17, Lesson 1: The Industrial Revolution EQ: How can inventions affect ways of life?

2 Ch. 17, Lesson 1: Vocabulary (pg. 316)
Industrial Revolution (pg. 316, into.) Labor Capital Entrepreneurs Cottage industry Urbanization (pg. 320)

3 The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution is a change from an economy based on farming and handcrafts, to an economy based on manufacturing by using machines in factories. Began in Great Britain in 1780s, then spread throughout European and northern United States. The Industrial Revolution refers to the rapid changes in the organization of manufacturing industry that transformed countries from rural agricultural to urban industrial economies. It began in the late 18th century in the Midlands area of England, then spread throughout the country, into continental Europe, and to the northern United States.

4 Why did it start in Britain?
Britain had an Agricultural Revolution led to increased food supply Increase food supply led to population grow Britain had capital (money available for investment) and entrepreneurs Britain had natural resources—rivers, minerals, etc. Britain had a market to sell its goods, colonies overseas

5 The Revolution Began with Cotton
Britain was leader in cotton production Spinners made cotton thread from raw materials Weavers wove cotton thread into cloth using looms People did this in their homes (cottages), thus the process is called cottage industry. Technological advances made cottage industry inefficient. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4joqYycnqM 4: 35

6 Activity: As you read Cotton Production and New Factories (pg. 317)—identify the three inventions and inventors that changed the cotton production industry in England. Then, explain how their invention changed the cotton production industry in England.

7 James Hargreaves’ The Spinning Jenny
In 1764, inventor James Hargreaves built a machine that became known as the spinning jenny (or spinning frame). The machine used eight spindles with a single wheel that allowed the operator to spin eight threads at once. Legend states that Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny after observing a spinning wheel that his daughter Jenny had accidentally knocked over. Despite its fall, the wheel was still turning. Hargreaves realized it would be possible for one person to spin multiple threads at once by using several spindles lined up in a row. The new machine allowed the Hargreaves family to produce much more yarn than any of their neighbors. Hargreaves’s machine allowed spinners to produced thread faster

8 James Watt’s Steam Engine
Thomas Newcomen built the first steam engine, although this invention is generally credited to James Watt. Newcomen used his first steam engine to pump water out of a mine. James Watt enabled the steam engine to drive machineries Steam engines now used to spin and weave cotton https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4joqYycnqM 6:50

9 The Coming of the Railroad: Trevithick’s Engine
In 1801, Richard Trevithick first attached a steam engine to a wagon. Trevithick’s engine was not successful for moving people, but he had planted the idea of human train transport. Richard Trevithick is considered to be the true inventor of the steam locomotive. He developed a high pressure, non-condensing steam engine that improved on Watt's design. On Christmas Day in 1801, he tested the first steam passenger vehicle. By 1804, Trevithick had applied steam to hauling loads along a railway. His steam locomotive was used to transport iron a distance of about nine miles, which in his time was a major achievement. Trevithick's "Catch-Me-Who-Can" locomotive (shown on this slide) was built in Its top speed was about ten miles per hour.

10 George Stephenson’s Rocket
Just a few years later, George Stephenson designed and built the Rocket, the first steam locomotive practical for pulling rolling stock (train cars). The Rocket was a critical player in the advent of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. The directors of the Liverpool & Manchester company were unsure whether to use locomotives or stationary engines on their line. To help decide, they held a competition in 1829 in which the winner would receive £500. Each locomotive had to haul a load three times its own weight at a speed of at least ten miles per hour. The locomotives had to run 20 times up and down a track, a distance equivalent to a trip between Liverpool and Manchester. The Rocket won the race, reaching speeds of up to 24 miles per hour.

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12 Social Impact of Industrialization
Industrial Revolution changed society Between cites grew Also two new social classes emerged Industrial middle class Industrial working class After 1730, Charles “Turnip” Townshend introduced the four-field method of crop rotation. Crop rotation is critical because consistent planting of the same crop on a field leads to a decline in important soil nutrients, thus decreasing crop yield. In Townshend’s system, farmers would plant a staple crop such as barley or wheat one year, change to another staple crop the next year, and plant turnips and clover for the next two years. The latter two crops helped replenish the soil with nutrients it had lost during the barley and wheat planting years. The droppings from animals that grazed on the clover and turnips further helped fertilize the soil. Turnips had been used in England as cattle feed since the 1660s, but Townshend was the first to use them for crop rotation.

13 Population Growth and Cities
Population Growth in Europe 1750 = 140 million people 1850 = 266 million people Industrialization also led to urbanization—people left the country and move to the cities to work in factories Cities also grew throughout Europe—led to pitiful living conditions, poverty, and diseases. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4joqYycnqM 8:30

14 Activity #1: New Social Classes
Read New Social Classes pg. 320. Contrast the Two Social Classes that emerged during the Industrial Revolution. Activity directions: 1. Define the social classes. 2. Write 2 characteristics about each class. Industrial Middle Class Industrial Working Class Define: Characteristic #1 Characteristic #2

15 Labor Conditions Factories were crowded, dark, and dirty
Workers toiled from dawn to dusk Working conditions were dangerous In the illustrations in this slide, workers are shown laboring in the shallow tunnels of late 18th-century mines. Notice that a woman is in the front in the lower picture. Female mine workers often suffered abuse at the hands of male workers.

16 Women Labor Factory owners hired women and children because they worked for lower wages Women gained economic power and independence Before industrialization, it was almost impossible for a woman to remain single and live on her own In the illustrations in this slide, workers are shown laboring in the shallow tunnels of late 18th-century mines. Notice that a woman is in the front in the lower picture. Female mine workers often suffered abuse at the hands of male workers.

17 Child Labor Malnourishment Beatings Runaways sent to prison
Factories employed many children, benefiting not just from their energy but also from their small fingers, which could manipulate tiny parts of machines more easily. Factories could also legally pay children less than adults, and parents were often eager to send their children to work and bring in more income for the family. Children as young as four years old worked long, difficult days for very little pay. Children sometimes worked up to 19 hours a day with single breaks of one hour or less. Malnourishment Beatings Runaways sent to prison Factory owners argued that child labor was good for the economy and helped build children's characters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2M9i1Wy6IU

18 Activity #2: Analyzing Primary Sources
Read Analyzing Primary Sources (Pg. 320) Document: The British Parliament Report on the Condition of Child Labor Date Written: 1857 After you finish reading it: Answer the DBQ question: Why might the British Parliament have examined the conditions of child factory workers? Explain in a paragraph, providing at least 2 statements of support.

19 Home Learning Industrial Revolution Worksheet #1 and #2
Due Monday, April 6. YOU HAVE A QUIZ ON THIS DATE!!

20 Assessment Have students write a diary entry from the perspective of an industrial male, female or child laborer working in a factory arguing for changes in the working conditions and subsequent living conditions they had to endure.


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