The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution is a change from an economy based on farming and handcrafts, to an economy based on manufacturing by using machines in factories. Began in Great Britain in 1780s, then spread throughout European and northern United States.
Why did it start in Britain? Britain had an Agricultural Revolution led to increased food supply Increase food supply led to population grow Britain had capital (money available for investment) and entrepreneurs Britain had natural resources— rivers, minerals, etc. Britain had a market to sell its goods, colonies overseas
The Revolution Began with Cotton Britain was leader in cotton production – Spinners made cotton thread from raw materials – Weavers wove cotton thread into cloth using looms People did this in their homes (cottages), thus the process is called cottage industry. Technological advances made cottage industry inefficient. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4joqYycnqM 4: 35
Activity: As you read Cotton Production and New Factories (pg. 317)—identify the three inventions and inventors that changed the cotton production industry in England. Then, explain how their invention changed the cotton production industry in England.
James Hargreaves’ The Spinning Jenny Hargreaves’s machine allowed spinners to produced thread faster
James Watt’s Steam Engine James Watt enabled the steam engine to drive machineries Steam engines now used to spin and weave cotton https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4joqYycnqM 6:50
The Coming of the Railroad: Trevithick’s Engine In 1801, Richard Trevithick first attached a steam engine to a wagon. Trevithick’s engine was not successful for moving people, but he had planted the idea of human train transport.
George Stephenson’s Rocket Just a few years later, George Stephenson designed and built the Rocket, the first steam locomotive practical for pulling rolling stock (train cars).
Social Impact of Industrialization Industrial Revolution changed society Between cites grew Also two new social classes emerged – Industrial middle class – Industrial working class
Population Growth and Cities Population Growth in Europe o 1750 = 140 million people o 1850 = 266 million people Industrialization also led to urbanization—people left the country and move to the cities to work in factories Cities also grew throughout Europe—led to pitiful living conditions, poverty, and diseases. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4joqYycnqM 8:30
Activity #1: New Social Classes Read New Social Classes pg Contrast the Two Social Classes that emerged during the Industrial Revolution. Activity directions: 1. Define the social classes. 2. Write 2 characteristics about each class. Industrial Middle ClassIndustrial Working Class Define: Characteristic #1 Characteristic #2
Labor Conditions Factories were crowded, dark, and dirty Workers toiled from dawn to dusk Working conditions were dangerous
Women Labor Factory owners hired women and children because they worked for lower wages Women gained economic power and independence Before industrialization, it was almost impossible for a woman to remain single and live on her own
Child Labor Malnourishment Beatings Runaways sent to prison Factory owners argued that child labor was good for the economy and helped build children's characters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2M9i1Wy6IU
Activity #2: Analyzing Primary Sources Read Analyzing Primary Sources (Pg. 320) Document: The British Parliament Report on the Condition of Child Labor Date Written: 1857 After you finish reading it: – Answer the DBQ question: Why might the British Parliament have examined the conditions of child factory workers? Explain in a paragraph, providing at least 2 statements of support.
Home Learning Industrial Revolution Worksheet #1 and #2 Due Monday, April 6. YOU HAVE A QUIZ ON THIS DATE!!
Assessment Have students write a diary entry from the perspective of an industrial male, female or child laborer working in a factory arguing for changes in the working conditions and subsequent living conditions they had to endure.