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1450 CE – 1750 CE Era of Global Interaction! Chapter 16 & World Economy 1 Classical 1450 CE – 1750 CE Ancient 1750 CE10,000 BCE1000 BCE Postclassical.

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Presentation on theme: "1450 CE – 1750 CE Era of Global Interaction! Chapter 16 & World Economy 1 Classical 1450 CE – 1750 CE Ancient 1750 CE10,000 BCE1000 BCE Postclassical."— Presentation transcript:

1 1450 CE – 1750 CE Era of Global Interaction! Chapter 16 & World Economy 1 Classical 1450 CE – 1750 CE Ancient 1750 CE10,000 BCE1000 BCE Postclassical

2 The World in 1400

3 Middle East in 1400 ► Loss of trade revenue & agricultural productivity   Peasants slip into serfdom   Turn increasingly toward faith & away from science for answers ► Abbasid, Mongol, & Byzantine collapse creates power vacuum

4 Middle East in 1400 ► Ottomans fill void

5 China in 1400 ► Ming dynasty initially focuses on re- establishing borders & influence   Example: Zheng He

6 China in 1400 ► Foreign influence ended in favor of internal development   Economy, industry, & agriculture   Emphasis on tradition & Neo-Confucianism

7 India in 1400 ► Timor & Mongol descendants led to broad Islamic empire, Mughal

8 Europe in 1400 ► Contact & exchange bred curiosity   Renaissance fosters spirit of exploring world   Wealth focused in Italian city-states expanded international trade, banking, art ► Monarchy & commerce strengthening   Reconquista of Spain drives out Muslim kingdoms

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10 Global Connections Muslim trade & Indian Ocean-based trade ↓ Mongol moment & land-based trade ↓ Return of sea trade & Chinese moment ↓ Leadership shifting toward Europe

11 Chinese compass & explosives Chinese sternpost rudder Arab lateen sail Arab portolan charts & maps A Shift – Why? New Technology: Key to Power Europe v. China

12 Technology in Iberia New sturdier ships –Needed for ocean travel –Experience in N.Atlantic vs. Med Maneuverability –Added a rudder Sails –Combined square & lateen sails to advance in uncooperative winds

13 Technology in Iberia Navigation instruments Astrolabe / cross staffs Compass Winds & currents Volta do mar

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15 European Exploration

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17 1550

18 1700

19 Exploration → Truly Global Network Result: –Columbian Exchange massive swap of people, diseases, plants, & animals b/t New World & Old World upon arrival of Christopher Columbus. Luxuries → Exploration Desire for luxuries helped fuel European exploration –Discovery of New World

20 European Exploration

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22 Columbian Exchange Examples: From Old WorldFrom New World Small Pox Horses Sugarcane Africans Wheat Cotton Potatoes Corn Tomatoes Tobacco

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25 Columbian Exchange Silver –What was the role of silver in the Columbian Exchange?

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27 The world economy & developments in Western Europe are connected!

28 Early Modern W. Europe - Pre-Test £ Put the following developments in chronological order & give a brief description  Enlightenment =  Renaissance =  Scientific Revolution =  Protestant Reformation =

29 W. Europe’s Commercial Revolution

30 Commercial Revolution £A time of internal economic growth in W. Europe as it became more trade-based £Standard of living improved

31 Economics?Economics? 1.What is “economics”? 2.What are some basic principles of economics?

32 W. Europe’s Postclassical Economy? 1.Manorialism £Subsistence farming = serfs £Lords live off of taxes £“Old Money” based on landownership and tradition 2.Small guilds develop to encourage artisanry

33 Early Modern Economy

34 …is global

35 W. Europe’s Commercial Revolution …based on new theory: Mercantilism –A policy that encouraged nations to maximize exports and minimize imports Meant colonized ports could only trade w/ mother country –Europe buys raw materials ($) –Europe sells manufactures ($$$)

36 Mercantilism & Results in Europe –Colonial markets led to more manufacturing in W. Europe

37 New Manufacturing Demands in Europe Met through… £ £Cottage Industry (also called Proto-Industrialization & Putting-Out System)   Production of cloth in rural areas   Done by farmers in winter months   Supplemented rural income   Merchants amassed capital & avoided guilds

38 Cottage Industry

39 New Manufacturing Demands in Europe Met through… £ £Cottage Industry (also called Proto-Industrialization & Putting-Out System)   Production of cloth in rural areas   Done by farmers in winter months   Supplemented rural income   Merchants amassed capital & avoided guilds £ £Urban manufacturing improved by technology   Metal working, pottery, shoemaking

40 Mercantilism & Manufacturing Investment in cottage & urban manufacturing due to… £ £Inflation £ What is inflation? £ Why was there inflation in early modern Europe? £ Why would inflation encourage investment?  Money in 1550 would buy less in 5 years, so merchants invested in manufacturing

41 Commercial Revolution in Western Europe £ New sources of income for:  Governments  Banks  Merchants  Farmers Pre-1450: Life similar to E. Europe Pre-1450: Life similar to E. Europe : peasant families had 5x more stuff than E. Europeans : peasant families had 5x more stuff than E. Europeans

42 Exploration, Columbian Exchange, Mercantilism, & Commercial Revolution …in World Economy New economic patterns (not able to move inland, but) –Slave trade Intensifies mercantilism & dependency –New World plantation economies Intensifies mercantilism & dependency –exception: Gunpowder empires: China, Ottomans Silver?

43 Reflect… How are the world economy and developments in Western Europe connected?


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