Presentation on theme: "1450 CE – 1750 CE Era of Global Interaction! Chapter 16 & World Economy 1 Classical 1450 CE – 1750 CE Ancient 1750 CE10,000 BCE1000 BCE Postclassical."— Presentation transcript:
1450 CE – 1750 CE Era of Global Interaction! Chapter 16 & World Economy 1 Classical 1450 CE – 1750 CE Ancient 1750 CE10,000 BCE1000 BCE Postclassical
The World in 1400
Middle East in 1400 ► Loss of trade revenue & agricultural productivity Peasants slip into serfdom Turn increasingly toward faith & away from science for answers ► Abbasid, Mongol, & Byzantine collapse creates power vacuum
Middle East in 1400 ► Ottomans fill void
China in 1400 ► Ming dynasty initially focuses on re- establishing borders & influence Example: Zheng He
China in 1400 ► Foreign influence ended in favor of internal development Economy, industry, & agriculture Emphasis on tradition & Neo-Confucianism
India in 1400 ► Timor & Mongol descendants led to broad Islamic empire, Mughal
Europe in 1400 ► Contact & exchange bred curiosity Renaissance fosters spirit of exploring world Wealth focused in Italian city-states expanded international trade, banking, art ► Monarchy & commerce strengthening Reconquista of Spain drives out Muslim kingdoms
Global Connections Muslim trade & Indian Ocean-based trade ↓ Mongol moment & land-based trade ↓ Return of sea trade & Chinese moment ↓ Leadership shifting toward Europe
Chinese compass & explosives Chinese sternpost rudder Arab lateen sail Arab portolan charts & maps A Shift – Why? New Technology: Key to Power Europe v. China
Technology in Iberia New sturdier ships –Needed for ocean travel –Experience in N.Atlantic vs. Med Maneuverability –Added a rudder Sails –Combined square & lateen sails to advance in uncooperative winds
Technology in Iberia Navigation instruments Astrolabe / cross staffs Compass Winds & currents Volta do mar
Exploration → Truly Global Network Result: –Columbian Exchange massive swap of people, diseases, plants, & animals b/t New World & Old World upon arrival of Christopher Columbus. Luxuries → Exploration Desire for luxuries helped fuel European exploration –Discovery of New World
Columbian Exchange Examples: From Old WorldFrom New World Small Pox Horses Sugarcane Africans Wheat Cotton Potatoes Corn Tomatoes Tobacco
Columbian Exchange Silver –What was the role of silver in the Columbian Exchange?
The world economy & developments in Western Europe are connected!
Early Modern W. Europe - Pre-Test £ Put the following developments in chronological order & give a brief description Enlightenment = Renaissance = Scientific Revolution = Protestant Reformation =
W. Europe’s Commercial Revolution
Commercial Revolution £A time of internal economic growth in W. Europe as it became more trade-based £Standard of living improved
Economics?Economics? 1.What is “economics”? 2.What are some basic principles of economics?
W. Europe’s Postclassical Economy? 1.Manorialism £Subsistence farming = serfs £Lords live off of taxes £“Old Money” based on landownership and tradition 2.Small guilds develop to encourage artisanry
Early Modern Economy
W. Europe’s Commercial Revolution …based on new theory: Mercantilism –A policy that encouraged nations to maximize exports and minimize imports Meant colonized ports could only trade w/ mother country –Europe buys raw materials ($) –Europe sells manufactures ($$$)
Mercantilism & Results in Europe –Colonial markets led to more manufacturing in W. Europe
New Manufacturing Demands in Europe Met through… £ £Cottage Industry (also called Proto-Industrialization & Putting-Out System) Production of cloth in rural areas Done by farmers in winter months Supplemented rural income Merchants amassed capital & avoided guilds
New Manufacturing Demands in Europe Met through… £ £Cottage Industry (also called Proto-Industrialization & Putting-Out System) Production of cloth in rural areas Done by farmers in winter months Supplemented rural income Merchants amassed capital & avoided guilds £ £Urban manufacturing improved by technology Metal working, pottery, shoemaking
Mercantilism & Manufacturing Investment in cottage & urban manufacturing due to… £ £Inflation £ What is inflation? £ Why was there inflation in early modern Europe? £ Why would inflation encourage investment? Money in 1550 would buy less in 5 years, so merchants invested in manufacturing
Commercial Revolution in Western Europe £ New sources of income for: Governments Banks Merchants Farmers Pre-1450: Life similar to E. Europe Pre-1450: Life similar to E. Europe : peasant families had 5x more stuff than E. Europeans : peasant families had 5x more stuff than E. Europeans
Exploration, Columbian Exchange, Mercantilism, & Commercial Revolution …in World Economy New economic patterns (not able to move inland, but) –Slave trade Intensifies mercantilism & dependency –New World plantation economies Intensifies mercantilism & dependency –exception: Gunpowder empires: China, Ottomans Silver?
Reflect… How are the world economy and developments in Western Europe connected?