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The Industrial Revolution

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1 The Industrial Revolution
Ms. McKenna The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories!

2 Standard: WHII.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the 19th century by: citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes explaining the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern, and the subsequent development of socialism and communism describing the evolution of the nature of work and the labor force, including its effects on families, the status of women and children, the slave trade, and the labor union movement

3 The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times Industrialization: a shift from an agricultural (farming) economy to one based on industry (manufacturing)

4 Key Terms Industrialization – a shift from an agricultural economy (farming) to one based on industry (manufacturing) Manufacturing – the use of machines, tools, and labor to make things for use or sale Rural – farming or country life; villages (sparsely populated) Urban – city life (densely populated) Urbanization – the movement of people to cities Tenement – a substandard, multi-family dwelling; usually old and occupied by the poor Free market – a market in which there is no economic intervention and regulation by the state (govt) Capitalism – private ownership of means of production Socialism – society (not the individual) owns and operates the means of production

5 Turning Points in History: Industrial Revolution
Introduction: (3:31)

6 Preview: Reading & Questions
As a quick preview to the Industrial Revolution, read each passage and answer the questions that follow Overview Topics What is a Revolution? What Caused the American Industrial Revolution? Horrors of the Workplace The Beginning of Child Labor Working Conditions Life in the City The Assembly Line

7 Pre-Industrial Revolution
Village life dominated – families were nearly self-sufficient Most villagers were farmers

8 Making Cloth Before Machines
Cottage Industry Slow process Business involving people who worked at home

9 Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Agricultural Revolution – improved the quality and quantity of food Farmers mixed different kinds of soil or tried new crop rotation to get higher yields This led to a surplus of food = fewer people died from hunger = rapid growth in population Rich landowners pushed ahead with enclosure: the process of taking over and consolidating land once shared by peasant farmers (farm output and profits rose) New technologies and new sources of energy and materials (e.g., James Watt’s steam engine became a key source of power)

10 Rapid Population Growth
Population of Britain in 1750 6 million Population of Britain in 1851 21 million Population of London in 1750 500,000 Population of London in 1851 3 million Families in agriculture in 1750 65% of population Families in agriculture in 1851 25% of population

11   When we get to the end of this lesson, we will complete a
‘Causes & Effects of the Industrial Revolution’ Graphic Organizer Causes _____________________________ Effects ______________________________________________________   The Industrial Revolution

12 Industrial Revolution Begins In Great Britain
Stable Government No wars Had capital (money) to invest in businesses Had overseas markets (colonial empire) Natural Resources Coal (energy for machines) Iron ore (for tools) Large network of rivers to move products Labor Supply Growing population Ready workforce New Technology Invention and improvement of steam engine

13 Industrial Revolution Spreads to Europe and the United States

14 The Enclosure Movement
The process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers Landowners gained: More land for pastures Larger fields for crops Laborers lost: Forced off their lands Moved to growing cities

15 Enclosure One thing Led to Another
Farmers gained pasture land for animals Raised more sheep Wool output increased Larger fields Able to cultivate product more efficiently Farm out-put increased Profits rose

16 Land Enclosure in England

17 Push Factors: Where did all the people go?
Fewer worker needed on the lands Farmers forced off their lands Small owners could not compete Villages shrank Cities grew – and GREW!! Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities

18 Migration to Cities Urbanization
Urbanization: the movement of people to cities Changes in farming, soaring population, and an increase in demand for workers led people to move from farms to the cities to work in factories Small towns near natural resources and cities near factories boomed instantly Urbanization

19 First Major Industry to Form
TEXTILE! The demand for cloth grew, so merchants had to compete with others for the supplies to make it. This raised a problem for the consumer because the products were at a higher cost. The solution was to use machinery, which was cheaper then products made by hand (which took a long time to create), therefore allowing the cloth to be cheaper to the consumer. Remember the ‘Spinning Jenny’? It reduced the amount of time and work needed to produce yarn (increased productivity)

20 Textile Factory Workers in England
1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers 1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers 1850 224, 000 looms >1 million workers

21 Growth of Industry Growth of factories
As demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with new machines (e.g., flying shuttle, spinning jenny) To house these new machines, manufacturers built the first factories New machines and factories increased production By the 1850s, factories began to be powered by coal and steam engines

22 Technological Advances that Produced the Industrial Revolution
Spinning Jenny: James Hargreaves Steam Engine: James Watt Cotton Gin: Eli Whitney Process for making Steel: Henry Bessemer

23 Spinning Jenny: 1764 Invented by James Hargreaves
At the time, cotton production could not keep up with demand This machine spun many threads at the same time, thus reducing the amount of work needed to produce yarn (increased productivity = produced yarn quickly)

24 Modern Steam Engine: 1763-1775 Improved by James Watt
Offered a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency Could be used to drive many different types of machinery (by the 1850s, most factories were powered by the steam engine) Increased the demand for coal to heat the water to produce steam (and the need for coal miners)

25 Cotton Gin: 1793 Invented by Eli Whitney to mechanize the cleaning of cotton A machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seeds, a job previously done by hand Led to the demand for more slaves


27 (Henry) Bessemer Process for the Manufacture of Steel: 1856
Bessemer process involved using oxygen in air blown through molten pig iron to burn off the impurities and thus create steel Lowered the cost of steel production, leading to steel being widely substituted for cast iron Steel used for the production of guns and railway structures such as bridges and tracks

28 Technology The Industrial Revolution was built on rapid advances in technology Which of these three inventions most changed the way that raw materials, goods, and people moved?

29 The Impact of the Railroad
Transportation innovation that most changed the way raw materials, goods, and people moved Allowed communication and trade between places previously deemed too far

30 Factories and Factory Towns
Where employees worked Major change from cottage industry Had to leave home to work (travel to cities) Working in a factory No safety codes = dangerous work for all Poor factory conditions (e.g., no heat or a/c, dirty, smelly, cramped) Long workdays (12-14 hours) Little pay (men compete with women and children for wages) Child labor = kept costs of production low and profits high Mind-numbing monotony (doing the same thing all day every day) Owners of mines and factories exercised control over lives of laborers Life in factory towns Towns grew up around factories and coal mines Pollution, poor sanitation, no health codes = sickness Rapid population growth Poor lived in crowded tiny rooms in tenements (multistory buildings divided into apartments)

31 Conditions in Factories
Dangerous Machinery Monotony Dirty Cramped spaces

32 Young women in the textile mills of Massachusetts died at an average age of 26, constantly inhaling cotton dust, working long hours in unventilated rooms lit by oil lamps

33 Testimonials on Labor Conditions
Testimony of William Cooper, a witness before the Sadler Commission in 1832

34 Child Labor Young children Long hours Poor treatment
Dangerous conditions


36 Children of the Industrial Revolution
Video: (Music 6:00) (Documentary 9:58) Pictures:

37 Testimony from Child Labor in the Mines
The Ashley Mines Investigation of 1842 Children: James Pearce (12), William Drury (10), and Patience Kershaw (17) Mine Manager: Edward Potter Mine Owner: William Newbould

38 Life in Factory Towns Rapid Population Growth Cramped Tenements
Poor Sanitation Pollution

39 Housing Tenement = a substandard, multi-family dwelling, usually old and occupied by the poor Built cheaply Multiple stories No running water No toilet Sewer down the middle of street Trash thrown out into street Crowded (5+ people living in one room) Breeding grounds for diseases Pollution from factory smoke

40 Factories and Mass Production
The factory system changed the world of work; Mass Production = the production of large amounts of standardized products, especially on assembly lines Mass production began in U.S. Elements: Interchangeable parts Assembly line Production and repair faster and more efficient Mass Production Dramatic increase in production Businesses charged less Affordable goods More repetitious jobs Soon became norm Effects

41 Assembly Line Workers on an assembly line add parts to a product that moves along the belt from one work station to the next A different person performs each task along the assembly line This division of labor made production faster and cheaper, lowering the price of goods

42 First Assembly Line: Henry Ford - Automobiles

43 Rise of Labor Unions Encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved working conditions Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children Wanted workers’ rights and collective bargaining between labor and management

44 The Jungle Upton Sinclair
Written in 1906 to point out the troubles of the working class and the corruption of the American meatpacking industry in the early 20th Century Depicts poverty, absence of social programs, unpleasant living and working conditions, and hopelessness prevalent among the working class, which is contrasted with the deeply-rooted corruption of those in power

45 The Jungle Jurgis Rudkus: (2:46) Documentary: (9:52)

46 The Jungle Your Job: Read ‘About Upton Sinclair,’ author of The Jungle
Read ‘The Jungle: Plot Overview’ Read ‘Brief Chapter Introduction for Chapter 3 of The Jungle’ Read ‘Chapter 3 of The Jungle’ Read ‘ Extra: Sinclair’s The Jungle Turns 100’ On a separate sheet of paper, answer the Comprehension Questions

47 Legislation Resulting from The Jungle
Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (sanitary standards) Pure Food and Drug Act (food and drug tests, labels on food products)

48 Extension Activity Your Job: Pretend that you are one of the following people working in a factory during the Industrial Revolution: 12-year old boy/girl Mother of four with no husband to support the family Immigrant father from Lithuania Research the living conditions and working conditions that you faced during the Industrial Revolution Write a 2-page journal entry depicting your struggles, fears, frustrations, and hopes for the future

49 Consider these issues when writing your journal entry:
Growth of cities and migration Living conditions: no safety codes Working conditions: unfair labor practices Class tensions: the rise of the middle class

50 Large Gaps between Rich & Poor
The “HAVE-NOTS” The Poor, The Over-Worked, and the Destitute The “HAVES” Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution

51 “Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life

52 New Ways of Thinking: Economic Patterns Capitalism vs. Socialism

53 Capitalism Economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for a private profit Free-market economy: decisions regarding supply, demand, price, distribution, and investments are made by private actors Profit goes to owners who invest in the business Wages are paid to workers employed by companies and businesses

54 Stereotype of the Factory Owner

55 The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists
People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]

56 Karl Marx: Communism Wrote: The Communist Manifesto, 1848
A response to the injustices of capitalism; argued that capitalism would produce internal tensions which would lead to its destruction Communism = a political philosophy that aims for a classless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production and an end to private property “Class struggle between employers and employees is inevitable. Instead of capitalism with its emphasis on greediness and selfishness, the new society ruled by the proletariat (working class) will ensure social, economic, and political equality for everyone.”

57 Capitalism vs. Communism
an economic and social system in which capital is privately owned labor, goods and capital are traded in markets; and profits distributed to owners or invested in technologies and industries. Communism: a social structure in which classes are abolished property is commonly controlled A dictatorship of the workers Capitalism “Re-Definitions” Communism “Re-Definitions”

58 Effects of the Industrial Revolution

59 How did industrialization change the way of life?
Large gaps between the rich and the poor Changes brought by industrialization Size ↑ Class Tensions Cities Factories Working Conditions The rise of the middle class Living Conditions No safety codes Sickness Long hours, Little pay Dangerous conditions

60 Positive Effects Increased world productivity
Growth of railroads (faster and more efficient transportation of goods and people) New entrepreneurs emerged (more money = more technology/inventions) New inventions improved quality of life for many Labor eventually organized (unions) to improve working conditions Laws were enacted to enforce health and safety codes in cities and factories New opportunities for women Rise of the middle class – size, power, and wealth expanded Social structure becomes more flexible

61 Negative Effects: Factory Life
Child labor used in factories & mines Miserable (dirty, cramped) and dangerous (fingers, limbs, & lives lost) working conditions Monotonous work with heavy, noisy, repetitive machinery Long working hours – six days a week, with little pay Rigid schedules ruled each day Gas, candle & oil lamps created soot and smoke in factories Diseases such as pneumonia & tuberculosis spread through factories

62 Negative Effects: Labor Practices & Housing Issues
Labor unrest leads to demonstrations (sometimes violent) Strikes take place Women were paid less than men (were actually preferred) Indentured workers Employers had a more impersonal relationship with employees Tenement housing was poorly constructed, crowded, and cold Human and industrial waste contaminated water supplies – typhoid and cholera spread

63 Negative Effects: Worldwide
Air pollution increased over cities and industrial areas Technological changes eroded the balance of power in Europe Contributed to the growth of imperialism and communism (Marx’s & Engels’ theories) Produced weaponry that gave Western nations a military advantage over developing nations

64 Not Necessarily Good or Bad
The location of work places changed as more goods were produced away from the home environment (towns/factories) Educational systems emphasized more science, technology, and business A global economy began to emerge (trade)

65 Individual Assignment
Select two effects of the Industrial Revolution that you believe were the most significant (ONE positive effect and ONE negative effect) Write 3-4 paragraphs answering the following questions: How did the nature of work and the labor force evolve from pre-Industrial times through the Industrial Revolution? What were the two most significant effects of the Industrial Revolution and why?

66 The Industrial Revolution
Directions: Complete the ‘Causes & Effects of the Industrial Revolution’ Graphic Organizer, identifying at least 3 causes and 3 effects Causes _____________________________ Effects ______________________________________________________   The Industrial Revolution

67 Summary: Social Effects
Increase in population of cities Women and children enter the workplace as cheap labor Rise of labor unions Introduction of reforms Laws to protect children in the workplace Minimum wage and maximum hour laws Federal safety and health standards Growth of the middle class Increased production and higher demand for raw materials = growth of worldwide trade Expansion of education Women’s increased demands for suffrage

68 Advantages of the Industrial Revolution
Goods were able to be produced much more cheaply There were greater job opportunities There was an increase in wealth and in general quality of life An independent urban manufacturing business force arose New inventions and innovations occurred; information spread, making the world “smaller” Spurred the rise of large cities

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