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The Industrial Revolution Ms. McKenna The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories!

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1 The Industrial Revolution Ms. McKenna The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories!

2 Standard: WHII.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the 19 th century by: – –citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes – –explaining the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern, and the subsequent development of socialism and communism – –describing the evolution of the nature of work and the labor force, including its effects on families, the status of women and children, the slave trade, and the labor union movement

3 The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the timessocioeconomic cultural Industrialization: a shift from an agricultural (farming) economy to one based on industry (manufacturing)

4 Key Terms Industrialization – a shift from an agricultural economy (farming) to one based on industry (manufacturing) Manufacturing – the use of machines, tools, and labor to make things for use or sale Rural – farming or country life; villages (sparsely populated) Urban – city life (densely populated) Urbanization – the movement of people to cities Tenement – a substandard, multi-family dwelling; usually old and occupied by the poor Free market – a market in which there is no economic intervention and regulation by the state (govt) Capitalism – private ownership of means of production Socialism – society (not the individual) owns and operates the means of production

5 Introduction: aNBkvchttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Efq- aNBkvc (3:31) Turning Points in History: Industrial Revolution

6 Preview: Reading & Questions As a quick preview to the Industrial Revolution, read each passage and answer the questions that follow – –Overview Topics   What is a Revolution?   What Caused the American Industrial Revolution?   Horrors of the Workplace – –The Beginning of Child Labor – –Working Conditions – –Life in the City   The Assembly Line

7 Pre-Industrial Revolution Village life dominated – families were nearly self- sufficient Village life dominated – families were nearly self- sufficient Most villagers were farmers Most villagers were farmers

8 Making Cloth Before Machines Cottage Industry Slow process Business involving people who worked at home

9 Causes of the Industrial Revolution Agricultural Revolution – improved the quality and quantity of food – –Farmers mixed different kinds of soil or tried new crop rotation to get higher yields – –This led to a surplus of food = fewer people died from hunger = rapid growth in population Rich landowners pushed ahead with enclosure: the process of taking over and consolidating land once shared by peasant farmers (farm output and profits rose) New technologies and new sources of energy and materials (e.g., James Watt’s steam engine became a key source of power)

10 Rapid Population Growth Population of Britain in million Population of Britain in million Population of London in ,000 Population of London in million Families in agriculture in % of population Families in agriculture in % of population

11 Causes _________ __________ __________ The Industrial Revolution Effects  _____________ ______________ ______________ _____________ When we get to the end of this lesson, we will complete a ‘Causes & Effects of the Industrial Revolution’ Graphic Organizer

12 Industrial Revolution Begins In Great Britain Stable Government No wars No wars Had capital (money) to invest in businesses Had capital (money) to invest in businesses Had overseas markets (colonial empire) Had overseas markets (colonial empire) Natural Resources Coal (energy for machines) Coal (energy for machines) Iron ore (for tools) Iron ore (for tools) Large network of rivers to move products Large network of rivers to move products Labor Supply Growing population Growing population Ready workforce Ready workforce New Technology Invention and improvement of steam engine Invention and improvement of steam engine

13 Industrial Revolution Spreads to Europe and the United States

14 The Enclosure Movement The process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers Landowners gained: – –More land for pastures – –Larger fields for crops Laborers lost: – –Forced off their lands – –Moved to growing cities

15 Enclosure One thing Led to Another Farmers gained pasture land for animals Raised more sheep Wool output increased Larger fields Able to cultivate product more efficiently Farm out-put increased Profits rose

16 Land Enclosure in England

17 Push Factors: Where did all the people go? Fewer worker needed on the lands Farmers forced off their lands Small owners could not compete Villages shrank Cities grew – and GREW!! Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities

18 Urbanization: the movement of people to cities Changes in farming, soaring population, and an increase in demand for workers led people to move from farms to the cities to work in factories Small towns near natural resources and cities near factories boomed instantly Urbanization Migration to Cities

19 First Major Industry to Form TEXTILE! The demand for cloth grew, so merchants had to compete with others for the supplies to make it. This raised a problem for the consumer because the products were at a higher cost. The solution was to use machinery, which was cheaper then products made by hand (which took a long time to create), therefore allowing the cloth to be cheaper to the consumer. Remember the ‘Spinning Jenny’? It reduced the amount of time and work needed to produce yarn (increased productivity)

20 Textile Factory Workers in England looms 150, 000 workers , 000 looms 200, 000 workers , 000 looms>1 million workers

21 Growth of Industry Growth of factories Growth of factories –As demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with new machines (e.g., flying shuttle, spinning jenny) –To house these new machines, manufacturers built the first factories –New machines and factories increased production –By the 1850s, factories began to be powered by coal and steam engines

22 Technological Advances that Produced the Industrial Revolution Spinning Jenny: James Hargreaves Steam Engine: James Watt Cotton Gin: Eli Whitney Process for making Steel: Henry Bessemer

23 Spinning Jenny: 1764 Invented by James Hargreaves At the time, cotton production could not keep up with demand This machine spun many threads at the same time, thus reducing the amount of work needed to produce yarn (increased productivity = produced yarn quickly)

24 Modern Steam Engine: Improved by James Watt Offered a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency Could be used to drive many different types of machinery (by the 1850s, most factories were powered by the steam engine) Increased the demand for coal to heat the water to produce steam (and the need for coal miners)

25 Cotton Gin: 1793 Invented by Eli Whitney to mechanize the cleaning of cotton A machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seeds, a job previously done by hand Led to the demand for more slaves

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27 (Henry) Bessemer Process for the Manufacture of Steel: 1856 Bessemer process involved using oxygen in air blown through molten pig iron to burn off the impurities and thus create steel Lowered the cost of steel production, leading to steel being widely substituted for cast iron Steel used for the production of guns and railway structures such as bridges and tracks

28 Technology The Industrial Revolution was built on rapid advances in technology Which of these three inventions most changed the way that raw materials, goods, and people moved?

29 The Impact of the Railroad Transportation innovation that most changed the way raw materials, goods, and people moved Allowed communication and trade between places previously deemed too far

30 Where employees worked Major change from cottage industry Had to leave home to work (travel to cities) Life in factory towns Towns grew up around factories and coal mines Pollution, poor sanitation, no health codes = sickness Rapid population growth Poor lived in crowded tiny rooms in tenements (multistory buildings divided into apartments) Working in a factory No safety codes = dangerous work for all Poor factory conditions (e.g., no heat or a/c, dirty, smelly, cramped) Long workdays (12-14 hours) Little pay (men compete with women and children for wages) Child labor = kept costs of production low and profits high Mind-numbing monotony (doing the same thing all day every day) Owners of mines and factories exercised control over lives of laborers Factories and Factory Towns

31 Conditions in Factories Dirty Cramped spaces Monotony Dangerous Machinery

32 Young women in the textile mills of Massachusetts died at an average age of 26, constantly inhaling cotton dust, working long hours in unventilated rooms lit by oil lamps

33 Testimonials on Labor Conditions Testimony of William Cooper, a witness before the Sadler Commission in 1832

34 Child Labor Young children Long hours Poor treatment Dangerous conditions

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36 Children of the Industrial Revolution Video: feature=fvwrelhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kfuUoINOU5I& feature=fvwrel (Music 6:00) &feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cK6Q4bdKfM &feature=related (Documentary 9:58) Pictures: or/

37 Testimony from Child Labor in the Mines The Ashley Mines Investigation of 1842 – –Children: James Pearce (12), William Drury (10), and Patience Kershaw (17) – –Mine Manager: Edward Potter – –Mine Owner: William Newbould

38 Life in Factory Towns Cramped Tenements Pollution Poor Sanitation Rapid Population Growth

39 Housing Tenement = a substandard, multi-family dwelling, usually old and occupied by the poor Built cheaply Multiple stories No running water No toilet Sewer down the middle of street Trash thrown out into street Crowded (5+ people living in one room) Breeding grounds for diseases Pollution from factory smoke

40 The factory system changed the world of work; Mass Production = the production of large amounts of standardized products, especially on assembly lines Mass production began in U.S. Elements: –Interchangeable parts –Assembly line Production and repair faster and more efficient Mass Production Dramatic increase in production Businesses charged less Affordable goods More repetitious jobs Soon became norm Effects Factories and Mass Production

41 Assembly Line Workers on an assembly line add parts to a product that moves along the belt from one work station to the next A different person performs each task along the assembly line This division of labor made production faster and cheaper, lowering the price of goods

42 First Assembly Line: Henry Ford - Automobiles

43 Rise of Labor Unions Encouraged worker- organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved working conditions Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children Wanted workers’ rights and collective bargaining between labor and management

44 The Jungle The Jungle Upton Sinclair – –Written in 1906 to point out the troubles of the working class and the corruption of the American meatpacking industry in the early 20 th Century – –Depicts poverty, absence of social programs, unpleasant living and working conditions, and hopelessness prevalent among the working class, which is contrasted with the deeply-rooted corruption of those in power

45 The Jungle Jurgis Rudkus: WfSPik (2:46) WfSPik Documentary: qjBF7A&feature=related (9:52) qjBF7A&feature=related

46 The Jungle Your Job: – –Read ‘About Upton Sinclair,’ author of The Jungle – –Read ‘The Jungle: Plot Overview’ – –Read ‘Brief Chapter Introduction for Chapter 3 of The Jungle’ – –Read ‘Chapter 3 of The Jungle’ – –Read ‘ Extra: Sinclair’s The Jungle Turns 100’ – –On a separate sheet of paper, answer the Comprehension Questions

47 Legislation Resulting from The Jungle Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (sanitary standards) Pure Food and Drug Act (food and drug tests, labels on food products)

48 Extension Activity Your Job: Pretend that you are one of the following people working in a factory during the Industrial Revolution: – –12-year old boy/girl – –Mother of four with no husband to support the family – –Immigrant father from Lithuania Research the living conditions and working conditions that you faced during the Industrial Revolution Write a 2-page journal entry depicting your struggles, fears, frustrations, and hopes for the future

49 Consider these issues when writing your journal entry: Growth of cities and migration Living conditions: no safety codes Working conditions: unfair labor practices Class tensions: the rise of the middle class

50 Large Gaps between Rich & Poor The “HAVES” Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution The “HAVE-NOTS” The Poor, The Over-Worked, and the Destitute

51 “Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life

52 New Ways of Thinking: Economic Patterns Capitalism vs. Socialism

53 Capitalism Economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for a private profit Free-market economy: decisions regarding supply, demand, price, distribution, and investments are made by private actors Profit goes to owners who invest in the business Wages are paid to workers employed by companies and businesses

54 Stereotype of the Factory Owner

55 The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists × People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals × Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few × Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]

56 Karl Marx: Communism Wrote: The Communist Manifesto, 1848 A response to the injustices of capitalism; argued that capitalism would produce internal tensions which would lead to its destruction Communism = a political philosophy that aims for a classless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production and an end to private property “Class struggle between employers and employees is inevitable. Instead of capitalism with its emphasis on greediness and selfishness, the new society ruled by the proletariat (working class) will ensure social, economic, and political equality for everyone.”

57 Capitalism vs. Communism Capitalism: – –an economic and social system in which capitaleconomicsocial systemcapital is privately ownedprivately owned – –labor, goods and capital are traded in markets; andlabor tradedmarkets – –profits distributed to owners or invested in technologies and industries.profitstechnologies industries Communism: – –a social structure in which classes are abolishedsocial structureclasses are abolished – –property is commonly controlledproperty – –A dictatorship of the workers Capitalism “Re- Definitions” Communism “Re- Definitions”

58 Effects of the Industrial Revolution

59 How did industrialization change the way of life? Changes brought by industrialization Cities Living Conditions Working Conditions Class Tensions Factories Size ↑ No safety codes Sickness Long hours, Little pay Dangerous conditions Large gaps between the rich and the poor The rise of the middle class

60 Positive Effects Increased world productivity Increased world productivity Growth of railroads (faster and more efficient transportation of goods and people) Growth of railroads (faster and more efficient transportation of goods and people) New entrepreneurs emerged (more money = more technology/inventions) New entrepreneurs emerged (more money = more technology/inventions) New inventions improved quality of life for many New inventions improved quality of life for many Labor eventually organized (unions) to improve working conditions Labor eventually organized (unions) to improve working conditions Laws were enacted to enforce health and safety codes in cities and factories Laws were enacted to enforce health and safety codes in cities and factories New opportunities for women New opportunities for women Rise of the middle class – size, power, and wealth expanded Rise of the middle class – size, power, and wealth expanded Social structure becomes more flexible Social structure becomes more flexible

61 Negative Effects: Factory Life Child labor used in factories & mines Child labor used in factories & mines Miserable (dirty, cramped) and dangerous (fingers, limbs, & lives lost) working conditions Miserable (dirty, cramped) and dangerous (fingers, limbs, & lives lost) working conditions Monotonous work with heavy, noisy, repetitive machinery Monotonous work with heavy, noisy, repetitive machinery Long working hours – six days a week, with little pay Long working hours – six days a week, with little pay Rigid schedules ruled each day Rigid schedules ruled each day Gas, candle & oil lamps created soot and smoke in factories Gas, candle & oil lamps created soot and smoke in factories Diseases such as pneumonia & tuberculosis spread through factories Diseases such as pneumonia & tuberculosis spread through factories

62 Negative Effects: Labor Practices & Housing Issues Labor unrest leads to demonstrations (sometimes violent) Labor unrest leads to demonstrations (sometimes violent) Strikes take place Strikes take place Women were paid less than men (were actually preferred) Women were paid less than men (were actually preferred) Indentured workers Indentured workers Employers had a more impersonal relationship with employees Employers had a more impersonal relationship with employees Tenement housing was poorly constructed, crowded, and cold Tenement housing was poorly constructed, crowded, and cold Human and industrial waste contaminated water supplies – typhoid and cholera spread Human and industrial waste contaminated water supplies – typhoid and cholera spread

63 Negative Effects: Worldwide Air pollution increased over cities and industrial areas Air pollution increased over cities and industrial areas Technological changes eroded the balance of power in Europe Technological changes eroded the balance of power in Europe Contributed to the growth of imperialism and communism (Marx’s & Engels’ theories) Contributed to the growth of imperialism and communism (Marx’s & Engels’ theories) Produced weaponry that gave Western nations a military advantage over developing nations Produced weaponry that gave Western nations a military advantage over developing nations

64 Not Necessarily Good or Bad The location of work places changed as more goods were produced away from the home environment (towns/factories) The location of work places changed as more goods were produced away from the home environment (towns/factories) Educational systems emphasized more science, technology, and business Educational systems emphasized more science, technology, and business A global economy began to emerge (trade) A global economy began to emerge (trade)

65 Individual Assignment Select two effects of the Industrial Revolution that you believe were the most significant (ONE positive effect and ONE negative effect) Write 3-4 paragraphs answering the following questions: – –How did the nature of work and the labor force evolve from pre-Industrial times through the Industrial Revolution? – –What were the two most significant effects of the Industrial Revolution and why?

66 Causes _________ __________ __________ The Industrial Revolution Effects  _____________ ______________ ______________ _____________ Directions: Complete the ‘Causes & Effects of the Industrial Revolution’ Graphic Organizer, identifying at least 3 causes and 3 effects 

67 Summary: Social Effects Increase in population of cities Increase in population of cities Women and children enter the workplace as cheap labor Women and children enter the workplace as cheap labor Rise of labor unions Rise of labor unions Introduction of reforms Introduction of reforms –Laws to protect children in the workplace –Minimum wage and maximum hour laws –Federal safety and health standards Growth of the middle class Growth of the middle class Increased production and higher demand for raw materials = growth of worldwide trade Increased production and higher demand for raw materials = growth of worldwide trade Expansion of education Expansion of education Women’s increased demands for suffrage Women’s increased demands for suffrage

68 Advantages of the Industrial Revolution – –Goods were able to be produced much more cheaply – –There were greater job opportunities – –There was an increase in wealth and in general quality of life – –An independent urban manufacturing business force arose – –New inventions and innovations occurred; information spread, making the world “smaller” – –Spurred the rise of large cities


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