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Industrial Chemistry Part iii Soap & Detergent Manufacture 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Industrial Chemistry Part iii Soap & Detergent Manufacture 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Chemistry Part iii Soap & Detergent Manufacture 2011

2 Soap & Detergent Manufacture

3 Soaps and Detergents are cleaning products that have become an essential commodity in our daily lives Cleaning products play an essential role in our daily lives. Introduction By safely and effectively removing soils, germs and other contaminants, they help us to stay healthy, care for our homes and possessions, and make our surroundings more lively and pleasant.

4 Types of Soap & Detergent Depending on their cleaning action and usage can be broadly categorized into four main types: Personal Cleaning products Laundry Cleaning products Household Cleaning products Dishwashing products

5 Personal Cleaning products Personal cleaning products are cleaning agents that are used to wash and clean our hands, face, body and hair. These products may include toilet soaps, liquid cleansers, face wash, shampoos and conditioners. Personal cleaning products help us remain clean and healthy by removing dirt, oil, and environmental pollutants from our body. Personal cleaning products can be categorized into two main types: Skin Cleaning products Hair Cleaning products

6 Laundry Cleaning products: are detergents and surface active agents, that are manufactured to wash and clean our laundry items. Laundry Cleaning products formulated to meet different requirements of laundry cleaning, such as stain and soil removal, bleaching, fabric softening and conditioning and disinfectant requirements under the varying temperature, water, and usage conditions. Laundry Cleaning products can be categorized into five main types - 1) Detergent Powder 2) Detergent Cake 3) Fabric Softener 4) Laundry Liquid 5) Stain & Odor Eliminator

7 Household Cleaning products Are cleaners that we use in our homes to wash and clean furniture, glass, plastic items and different types of surfaces. These products help us keep fit and healthy be killing and removing harmful bacteria and germs from our homes and workplaces. Household Cleaning products can be categorized into four main classes: 1) Floor Cleaners 2) Glass Cleaners 3) Toilet Bowl Cleaners 4) Wood Cleaners

8 Are cleaning agents that are formulated to wash and clean dishes and other kitchen utensils. These products are available for hand wash as well as machine wash and are made for different water, temperature and usage conditions. Dishwashing products can be categorized into four main types: 1) Dishwasher Liquid 2) Dishwasher Powder 2) Dishwasher Gel 3) Dishwasher Tablets Dishwashing products

9 Ingredients of Soaps and Detergents Fats Alkalies Glycerin Surfactants (30-70%) Plasticizers and binders (20-50%) Lather enhancers (0-5%) Fillers and binders (5-30%) Water (5-12%) Fragrance (0-3.0%) Opacifying agents (0-0.3%) Dyes and pigments (less than 1%) Soap Natural source Synthetic Soap/dete rgents

10 Soaps are prepared by the alkaline hydrolysis of fats and oils in what called the saponification process. Saponification is the reaction between a fat or oil and a base, producing glycerol and a salt (soap) Fats + Alkalies Soap Salt


12 Surfactants Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance Raw Materials Linear alkylbenzene are organic compounds with the formula C 6 H 5 C n H 2n+1. Typically n is between 10 and 16. The C n H 2n+1 chain is unbranched. They are sometimes called LAB's.

13 Detergent Builders Detergent builders are materials, which can be used to bind cations (Ca2+, and Mg2+) contained in wash solutions that results in water softening. Builders enhance the quality of the water, thereby making the detergents work in a more effective and efficient manner. (Builders enhance or maintain the cleaning efficiency of the surfactant Sometimes more than one detergent builder is used in a product, to develop a builder system with more effective cleaning performance.

14 Types of Detergent Builders 1)Organic builders 2) Inorganic builders Depending on the type of builders used in manufacturing Process, the builders are acting in different principles which are 1)Sequestration or chelation (holding hardness minerals in solution) 2) By precipitation (forming an insoluble substance) 3) Ion exchange

15 Zeolites (Sodium aluminosilicate Good ablity to deal with magnesium ions (ion exchange builders) Borates Ca 2+ + B(OH) 4 -0 CaB(OH) 4 Sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 and Sodium silicate are precipitating builders Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)

16 Function of Builders They do not permit the polyvalnt metal ions to combining with surfactant to form an adduct. They do not allow the polyvalent metal ions from combining with various soils and clays to form less dispersible residues to the surface of to be cleaned. They do not allow re-deposition of soils removed from a surface back onto the surface through a dispersing action associated chelating or precipitation

17 It offers superior water softening because of its high binding capacity for heavy metals and calcium ions Good buffering properties in the alkaline range that contribute to detergency action. Help emulsify oily and greasy soil by breaking it up into small parts and keep them from settling back on the cleaned surface

18 They provide buffered alkalinity to the wash solution, which is essential to cleaning in most applications They kill micro-organism which is desired properity.


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