2History of SoapSoap was one of the first chemical compounds ever made by man.The first soaps were probably the saps of certain plants, such as the Soap Plant (Chlorogalum pomeridianum), whose roots can be crushed in water to form a lather, and used as a shampoo.
3When was soap first used? Some hypothesize that even prehistoric man had a primitive form of soap. Soaps have been excavated in clay cylinders that date back to 2800 B.C. By 1500 B.C.Egyptians medical scrolls recommend a soap made from alkaline salts andanimal and vegetable oilsfor skin conditions.
4+ = What is saponifcation? Later, people learned that fats would react with alkalies in the ashes left over from a fire to produce saponified compoundsSaponification is commonly used to refer to the reaction of a metallic alkali (base) with a fat or oil to form soap.
5How is soap made today?Today, soaps are made from fats and oils that react with lye (sodium hydroxide).Solid fats like coconut oil, palm oil, tallow (rendered beef fat), or lard (rendered pork fat), are used to form bars of soap that stay hard and resist dissolving in the water left in the soap dish.
7How does soap clean your clothes? Because of that dualism, soap molecules act like a diplomat, improving the relationship between water and oil.How? When soap is added to the water, the hydrophilic (polar) heads of its molecules stay into the water (they like it!), while the long hydrophobic (nonpolar) chains join the oil particles and remain inwards (escaping from the water).
8What is a Micelle?In that way, they form circular groups named micelles, with the oily material absorbed inside and trapped.A micelle is a spherical body, which arises when amphiphilic molecules aggregate. These present their hydrophilic 'head' groups to the aqueous solvent and their hydrophobic 'tails' are buried within the micelle.
9What other ingredients go into soap making? Glycerin: Emollient and texture enhancerBHT: anti oxidant to preserve the oils from going rancidSorbitol: Helps make glycerine soaps more transparentTitanium Dioxide: Makes soap opaquePEG-6 methyl ether: Surfactant, detergent, emulsifier to make dyes and perfumes blend evenly