Presentation on theme: "What is QUALITY CONTROL?"— Presentation transcript:
1What is QUALITY CONTROL? Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptWhat is QUALITY CONTROL?QUALITY CONTROL (QC) is a tool / concept forobjectively determining , analyzing and solvingquality problem and for maintaining better quality.QC has two main activities :Maintenance activities : Keep current quality levelImprovement activities : Raise the quality level
2QC is the system of means whereby the qualities of Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept2. Definition of QC in JISQC is the system of means whereby the qualities ofproducts or services areproduced economicallyto meet the requirementsof the purchaser.3. QUALITY CONTROL do notconsist of only inspection.
3QC = Meeting In order to implement the QC activities effectively and Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptIn order to implement the QC activities effectively andeconomically,it is important to use the fundamental ideasand tools for QC.This text introduces 7 QC concepts for Seiko Epson Group.The objectives of QC activities is to meet our customers’requirement.So this idea is most important for QC.We have to use this idea every time.QC = Meetingcustomer’srequirements
4Contents Basic Quality Control --- an introduction 2 Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptContentsPageBasic Quality Control an introduction 21 Customers First 42 “ Actual Facts “3 Plan - Do - Check - Act Cycle 104 Big Problems First 155 Variation6 Problem Prevention 227 Process Control 25TQC : QC at Every Stage 28P1QCDMS --- the rewards of quality control 30
5QUALITY POLICY 品质方针 The Quality Policy of SINGAPORE EPSON INDUSTRIAL Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptQUALITY POLICY 品质方针The Quality Policy of SINGAPORE EPSON INDUSTRIALPTE LTD is based on 3 principles:1. QUALITY ASSURANCE 品质 保证We build quality into our product in every process by allthe staff performing to their maximum capacity.2. CUSTOMER FIRST 顾客第一Customer satisfaction is our first priority in our activityand we always constantly improve to achieve it.3. FACT CONTROL 实况管理We act on the decision from 3 realities principle:“Go to the real location, look at the real thing andconsider the real circumstances.”
6QUALITY POLICY 品质方针 品质 保证 The Quality Policy of SINGAPORE EPSON Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptQUALITY POLICY品质方针The Quality Policy of SINGAPORE EPSONINDUSTRIAL PTE LTD is based on 3 principles:1. QUALITY ASSURANCE品质 保证We build quality into our product inevery process by all the staff performingto their maximum capacity.
7QUALITY POLICY 品质方针 顾客第一 The Quality Policy of SINGAPORE EPSON Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptQUALITY POLICY品质方针The Quality Policy of SINGAPORE EPSONINDUSTRIAL PTE LTD is based on 3 principles:2. CUSTOMER FIRST顾客第一
8QUALITY POLICY 品质方针 实况管理 The Quality Policy of SINGAPORE EPSON Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptQUALITY POLICY品质方针The Quality Policy of SINGAPORE EPSONINDUSTRIAL PTE LTD is based on 3 principles:3. FACT CONTROL实况管理We act on the decision from 3 realitiesprinciple:“Go to the real location, look at the realthing and consider the real circumstances.”
9Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptBasic Quality ControlRecently a very successful greengrocer from Tokyo was on television. Until 10 years ago, he always bought his oranges at the market, but suddenly all the tasty oranges seemed to disappear. He decided to try and find out why.He discovered that each farmer took their oranges to the Farmers Union, where all the oranges became mixed together. Then the oranges were divided into 36 classes--6 sizes (SSS,SS,S,M,L,LL) and six grades of shape and appearance. But the most important “quality factor” for oranges is taste. At the Farmers Union there was no taste test or taste classification.Basic Quality Control , Page 2
10QC is basic good business sense. Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptBasic Quality ControlAfter discovering this, the greengrocer from Tokyo started buying directly from the farmers. Recently, he has started going to the farms and sometimes even trims the trees!The greengrocer has never studied QC or TQC, but hehas put his customer first, investigated the cause of theproblem, and change his methods to improve his product.QC is basic good business sense.Basic Quality Control , Page 2
111 Customers First ‘It tastes good to me’ Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept1 Customers First‘It tastes good to me’The owner of a cake shop is over 60years old. He tastes the cakes andadjusts the flavour until he thinks itis best. Most of the shop’s customersare between 15 and 20 years old. Howcan an old man know what flavouryoung people like ?Many companies have a policy of “customers first”but some only use it for the final customer ~ theperson who buys the final product or service.Basic Quality Control , Page 3
12Chefs (Internal customers) Eaters (External customers) Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept1 Customers FirstIn QC we treat the people who receive the results of ourwork as our customers. Sometimes this is called ‘ thenext process is our customer ’, but ’process’ doesn’tonly mean a manufacturing process.Chefs (Internal customers)Eaters (External customers)Vegetable washerAll employeesSalary calculationCallersTelephone operatorStudentsTeacherCustomersJobHere are some examples :Basic Quality Control , Page 3
13To satisfy our customers we must know what the Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptTo satisfy our customers we must know what thecustomers want and expected. Good communicationwith the next processes” is very important.Of course, the “processes” before your work will want tocommunicate with you because you are their customer.To satisfy our customers we must be responsible for ourown work, and assure the quality of our work.Basic Quality Control , Page 3
14Basic Quality Control , Page 4 Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptA famous QC professor was trying to reduce the number of defective steel plates at a factory when he had the following conversation.Professor : Why don’t you invite the workers from the next and previous processes to help investigate this problem?Process Chief : Professor! Do you mean we should invite the enemy into our workplace?Professor : Hey! Wait a minute. The next processes should be your customers, not your enemies! You should go to the next process and ask ”were the steel plates that we delivered today satisfactory?” That should improve relations with them.Process Chief : Professor, we could never do that. If we go to the next process they will think we are spies! We will be chased away.Basic Quality Control , Page 4
15Explain who is the customer in Customer First ? Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptDo you think your next processes are your enemies?If the people working in the process before your come and ask you questions about your work, do you think they are spies?Who are YOUR customers?Explain who is the customer in Customer First ?End-users and next processes are our customers.End-users : The person who buys or uses our productsor services.Next process : The person who in next processes willreceive the results of our works orservices.Basic Quality Control , Page 4
16We must implement following steps for Customers First: Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptWe must implement following steps for Customers First:1. Verify who are our customers.2. Determine our customers’ requirements clearly.It is important to determine what our customers expectso that we can satisfy them.To do this , we must communicate with our customers.3. Check whether the results of our work meet customers’requirements before handing it to our customers.Basic Quality Control , Page 4
172 “ACTUAL FACTS” Are your facts “ACTUAL FACTS”? Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept2 “ACTUAL FACTS”Are your facts “ACTUAL FACTS”?On a very dark night, 3 men meet an elephant but they don’t know what it is.One man touches the nose, “It feels like a fat snake.”The next man touches an ear, ”No, it feels like a large leaf.”The last man touches the elephant’s large teeth, ”No, it is hard like a stone, and pointed like an arrow.”Basic Quality Control , Page 5
18Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptActual Fact
19ACTUAL FACTS 2 “ACTUAL FACTS” Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept2 “ACTUAL FACTS”Each man believes his description is true and complete.If you try to improve quality without all the “actual facts”, you will be like the 3 men on the dark night.ACTUALFACTSBasic Quality Control , Page 5
20实况管理 3 REALITIES PRINCIPLE!! 3. FACT CONTROL Always remember the3 REALITIESPRINCIPLE!!3. FACT CONTROL实况管理We act on the decision from 3 realitiesprinciple:“Go to the real location, look at the realthing and consider the real circumstances.”
21Experience and Facts The Three Actualities Principle Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptExperience and FactsExperience is important when making decisions ; but facts are also important.You should base your actions on experience AND facts.The Three Actualities Principle helps us to collect facts scientifically.The Three Actualities PrincipleGo to the ACTUAL locationlook at the ACTUAL thingand consider the ACTUAL circumstances“ACTUAL location ” means the workshop, office, warehouse orwherever the problem is.“ACTUAL thing” means actual products, services, machines etc.“ACTUAL circumstances” means the real situation. Look at theproblem objectively and without preconceptions.Basic Quality Control , Page 6
22When we tackle quality problem, we must objectively observe Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptWhen we tackle quality problem, we must objectively observeit by collecting actual facts.It is very dangerous to make a judgment based on onlyour experience.2. We not deny our experience, but we should determine problems based on Actual Facts and Experience to observe quality problem objectively and to reachthe correct conclusion.When a quality problem has occurred, we should not stayin meeting a room to discuss the problem, but go to theplace where the problem occurred. We should objectivelyobserve the products, services, machines etc. whicheverhaving the problem without preconceptions.Basic Quality Control , Page 6
23A P C D CT LAN O HECK PLAN, DO, CHECK, ACT. 3 Plan-Do-Check-Act Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept3 Plan-Do-Check-ActPDCA Cycle is veryimportant in thefollowing activities:maintenanceimprovementACTLANPCHECKDOWe turn the PDCAwheel and followeach step:PLAN, DO, CHECK, ACT.Basic Quality Control , Page 7
243 Plan-Do-Check-Act 4 Act 1 Plan Don’t forget this step!! 2 Do 3 Check Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept3 Plan-Do-Check-Act4 ActWas the improvementsuccessful?If not, take further measures1 PlanDecide your target orobjective. Decide howto reach your targetDon’t forgetthis step!!2 DoTraining and education.Explain the plan toeveryone implementing the plan. (ie.”do” )3 CheckCheck the effects of theimprovement. (collect dataAnd compare with databefore improvement.)Basic Quality Control , Page 7
25A P C D ∞ P D C A What to do THEME IMPROVEMENT How to do Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept∞Permanentaction &preventionTheme &Target planDetailedplan how toachieve thetheme or targetTemporarilyemergencyactionAPPDCACDEvaluate DoresultEducation &TrainingDoaccording tothe detailedplanCheckDoresultTHEMEWhat to doMeasureDoresultIMPROVEMENTHow to do
26The PDCA cycle is based on the “Deming Cycle”. Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptThe PDCA cycle is based on the “Deming Cycle”.Dr. Deming introduced QC to Japan from the USafter World War 2.The Union of Japanese Scientists andEngineers (JUSE) invited Dr. Demingto Japan in July He held a seriesof lectures and seminars during whichhe taught the basic principles ofstatistical quality control to executives,managers and engineers of Japaneseindustries. His teachings made a deepimpression on the participants' mindsand provided great impetus inimplementing quality control in Japan.Basic Quality Control , Page 7
27Japanese achieved quality not by an inspection system that spots the defects on an assembly line, but by aconcerted effort to “get it right the first time”.This lesson was taught to the receptive Japanese in 1950by a then little-known American business managementexpert, W. Edwards Deming, who died at age 93. Until10 days before his death, Deming was still conductingseminars for American companies, belatedly eager forhis advice.Corporate America, after World War II, told Deming toget lost and he did, in Japan.
28Deming advised the Japanese, who sought him out, not to copy the American-style inspection system,but to incorporate quality control principles into themanufacturing process. He was rejected by theAmerican managers because of the belief that poorquality products resulted mostly from management’sfailures, not from worker ineptness.Japanese companies, however, were all ears. WhenDeming first arrived in Tokyo, the top men in theCompanies didn’t send just their engineers for anEight-day seminar --- they came themselves!!
29The Philosophy of the Control of Quality: The Deming CycleRedesign设计After-salesservice &market surveys售后服务与市场调查Planningand design计划与设计Move forward前进Production生产 / 制造MarketingConcern for quality与品质的关系
30Check Basic Quality Control , Page 8 Introduction to QC People Development DeptIn Seiko Epson we emphasize the “check” step to take more effectiveaction and draw the PDCA cycle like this (right).When you have arrived at the ACT step,don’t stop.You should return to the PLANstage and plan more improvements.ActPlanDoCheckIt is important to find the root of a problem.It is not good enough to only stop theproblem, you must find the cause of theproblem and remove that (see Section 6,Problem Prevention for more details).Basic Quality Control , Page 8
311. Plan 2. Do 3. Check 4. Act Target : To reduce the office heating Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptExample of a QC circle using the PDCA cycle: “Reducing the coolingcosts in our office.”1. PlanTarget : To reduce theoffice heatingcosts by 30%in 3 months.After investigation, wefound that people openthe windows in thewinter because it is toohot.We explained how touse the thermostats toall staff. We also askedall staff not to open thewindows when theheating is switched on.2. DoRotate thePDCA cycleAgain.Everyone knows how touse the thermostats. Thewindows are not openedwhen the heater is on.We calculated thatheating costs werereduced by 20% in 3months.Standardization : Checkevery 3 months that allstaff can still use thethermostats. Train allnew staff. We have notreached our target by10%, so repeat thePDCA cycle again.3. Check4. ActBasic Quality Control , Page 8
32PDCA Cycle for MAINTENANCE : Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptPDCA Cycle for MAINTENANCE :When we keep current quality level, we rotate this cycle asfollowing :Plan : Decide on a work procedure to keep current qualitylevel.Do : Work according to the work standard.Check : Check whether the quality level is maintained or not.Act : Take corrective action depending on the results ofcheck.If it has been maintained, we rotate the same PDCA Cycleagain. If it has not been maintained, causes of the problemshould be investigated and found out. Then we must takecountermeasures against the important causes.We should rotate new PDCA Cycle.
33When we want to raise the quality level, we rotate this cycle Introduction to QCPeople Development DeptHow are improvement activities performed according to PDCA cycle?For IMPROVEMENT :When we want to raise the quality level, we rotate this cycleas following :Plan : Decide on a new higher target and decide how to reachit.Do : Carry out the plan.Check : Check the results (compare against the set target)Act : Take corrective action depending on the result of check.If the target is achieved, then rotate the PDCA cycle formaintenance.Else, investigate the causes of the problem and takecountermeasures against the significant root causesand rotate the new PDCA cycle for improvement.
353. Plan-Do-Check-Act (计划-实践-检证-对策) Good QC 优良的品质管理 Is our job and Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept3. Plan-Do-Check-Act(计划-实践-检证-对策)Good QC优良的品质管理Is our job andresponsibilities这是我们的工作与责任PDCAImprovement革新PDCA维 持MaintenanceQuality levelPDCAImprovement革新品质水平PDCA维 持Maintenancetime时日
36劣 BAD 理想 What should be (Standard) 标准 No Maintenance 没有维持 Innovation Introduction to QCPeople Development Dept没有维持MaintenanceNoBAD劣What should be标准理想(Standard)Innovation革新Actual Situation实况Time时间