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Carpentry ID Part 2. Hex-drive wood insert Slide 96 of 189 A unique nut is the hex-drive wood insert; it is screwed into a predrilled hole in wood using.

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Presentation on theme: "Carpentry ID Part 2. Hex-drive wood insert Slide 96 of 189 A unique nut is the hex-drive wood insert; it is screwed into a predrilled hole in wood using."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carpentry ID Part 2

2 Hex-drive wood insert Slide 96 of 189 A unique nut is the hex-drive wood insert; it is screwed into a predrilled hole in wood using a hex wrench. The insert is threaded with standard screw/bolt threads and permits the use of screws and bolts to attach light loads to the wood. Threaded inserts are the ideal solution for joining knockdown furniture or for any application in which wood joints are often disassembled. Simply drill the pilot hole slightly smaller than the insert selected, turn the insert into the wood with an appropriate tool until it is flush, and then use a machine screw or bolt to attach the other part.

3 Nut, thread-cutting Slide 97 of 189 Self-threading nuts are turned on a nonthreaded projection, or stud. These nuts are also called palnuts. These fasteners eliminate the cost of cutting threads and cross threading a nut. There is no thread and nothing to bind, so the fasteners also save time as they are installed. They are used for light loads. The nuts provide very good protection from vibration. Thread-cutting nuts can be used on aluminum, molded plastic, steel, and brass. The stud material needs to be softer than the nuts. If the material is too hard, the nuts will not grip the stud and fail to screw onto the material. Sizes range from 1/8 to 3/8 inch.

4 Nut, speed (U-shaped) Slide 98 of 189 A speed nut is a light-duty nut for screws. The U-shaped speed nut is designed to clip over the surface and hold itself in place while the screw is installed. This feature is excellent for difficult-to-reach places and is commonly used for decorative covers. Speed nuts are available for screws from #6 to 1/4 inch.

5 Nut, square Slide 99 of 189 There are many different shapes and sizes of nuts. Square nuts are typically used with bolts to create an antique finish. Regular square nuts do not have a finished surface. A washerlike face is machined on the bearing surface of finished and semifinished nuts. Sizes range from #6 to 1 inch.

6 Nut, serrated-flange Slide 100 of 189 This nut has an incorporated washer with a serrated flange for extra grip. These nuts range in size from #6 to 7/8 inch.

7 Lag shield Slide 101 of 189 A lag shield is a two-part expansion anchor cast from a rustproof alloy. Lag shields have internal threads and are designed for use with lag bolts. Lag shields offer considerable expansion and are well suited for fastening applications in old masonry structures. A lag shield is inserted into a predrilled hole and sized for a specific size of lag bolt. Sizes range from 1/4 to 3/4 inch in both short and long versions.

8 Nut, slotted Slide 102 of 189 There are times when it is necessary to secure a nut in place so it cannot come loose. For this purpose, slotted nuts are used. A slotted nut is simply a hex nut with slots cut across the flats of the nut. A cotter key is typically inserted through the slots to prevent the nut from turning. A hole in the bolt or stud is aligned with the slot before inserting the cotter key. Slotted nuts are typically available in sizes ranging from 1/4 to 1 inch. All thread patterns are available in slotted nuts.

9 Nut, castle Slide 103 of 189 When nuts must be secured so they can not come loose, they may be secured with castellated nuts. Castellated nuts are called castle nuts and are identified by the smaller diameter at the top of the nut. The top part is also slotted to accept cotter keys. It should be noted that castle nuts are no longer standard in the United States. Castle nuts are being replaced with slotted nuts. Castle nuts are sometimes identified by thickness and width across the flats, as well as by thread diameter.

10 Nut, push Slide 104 of 189 Push nuts are in the family of plate nuts that are inserted on nonthreaded stock. Push nuts are typically used to secure wheels on simple axles. They provide a decorative finish and conceal the retaining action of the nut. Push nuts are pushed onto the stock and grip it with springlike fingers.

11 Gate latch and eye Slide 105 of 189 A gate latch and eye is also called a gate hook and eye and can be used to latch gates or doors and to fasten screen or storm panels. The eye screw is positioned and screwed into the wood so that the latch slips into the eye when latched. These are manufactured in a large variety of sizes, ranging in length from 1 inch to 18 inches.

12 Snap, swivel Slide 106 of 189 Swivel snaps are also called swivel eye snaps, among several common names, such as dog snaps, boat hooks, and horse snaps. These snaps are designed to allow a quick, easy method of opening the snap and have a swivel built into the base to prevent twisting of the strap, rope, chain, or cord attached to the snap. The ring at the base is used to attach the snap to the rope, chain, or strap. Swivel snaps are identified by their length, eye size, and snap opening. Swivel snaps are made from several different materials to provide the corrosion protection and appearance selected for a particular application.

13 Case latch Slide 107 of 189 A case latch is a type of lever- actuated fastener. These fasteners are designed to draw and pull the two elements being joined together, then lock by pivoting over center. Case latches are manufactured in different sizes and from different materials. The user may select the material and size that fit the application. Case latches are attached with screws. The parts of the latch must be aligned and spaced correctly to obtain the best service from the latch.

14 Barrel bolt Slide 108 of 189 A barrel bolt is a sliding-action fastener. A pin is permitted to slide in the frame of the fastener and generally has a notch to hold the bolt handle open or closed. Barrel bolts work best when the barrel bolt handle stops are in the down position but can be used in vertical position.

15 Safety hasp Slide 109 of 189 Safety hasps are used to secure or limit access through doors, drawers, gates, and other lockable barriers. They are attached with screws or bolts and are designed to cover the fasteners when the hasp is closed and locked. The locking mechanism is not typically included with simple hasps. Safety hasps are identified by their length.

16 Magnetic latch Slide 110 of 189 Magnetic latches are used to keep cabinet doors closed. Magnetic latches are very popular, as they are not typically visible while they keep doors closed. A magnetic latch typically consists of two parts: the magnet and its mounting frame; and the striker, a metal blank attached to the door. Some magnetic latch mounting frames are slotted to permit some adjustment. The magnets are commonly attached with a round or pan head screw.

17 Clip organizer Slide 111 of 189 Clip organizers are used to support handles of products such as brooms, mops, hammers, garden tools, or shop tools. They have a variety of uses. Clip organizers are attached with screws and use spring pressure to support handles.

18 Thread protector Slide 112 of 189 A thread protector is a sleeve that slips over the exposed threads on a finished product to prevent the threads from catching on someone or something; they also protect the threads from damage. They are available in a variety of sizes and colors.

19 Spring, extension Slide 113 of 189 Extension springs stretch to get longer and then spring back to their original length. An extension spring typically has a hook or other type of fastener on its ends. Spring size is measured by the length of the spring, the diameter of the spring, or the size of the load for the spring. Extension springs may have a number of different methods to attach to a load: hooks, threaded fittings, and eyes, to name a few.

20 Spring, compression Slide 114 of 189 Compression springs are compressed (shortened) and then spring back to their original length. Compression springs typically do not have connectors on their ends. Sizes vary from very small to very large.

21 Cable tie (zip tie) Slide 115 of 189 Cable ties offer a unique method of bundling, with a wide range of colors and grades. Cable ties are available from mini ties through extra-heavy- duty cable ties. The mini ties are designed to support 18 pounds, and the extra-heavy-duty ties will support 175 pounds. Cable ties are manufactured in a variety of lengths, ranging from 4 to over 48 inches and as special order ties as long as 60 inches. An advantage of cable ties is that they do not stretch very much. They can be made from different materials to match the environment of the application.

22 Turnbuckle Slide 116 of 189 Turnbuckles are used when adjustment to a length may be necessary. A turnbuckle is an elongated nut with right-hand threads in one end and left-hand threads in the other. An eye bolt is screwed into each end (one eye bolt must have left-hand threads); and when the eye bolts are attached, the length between the eye bolts can be adjusted by turning the nut.

23 Chain, twin-loop weldless Slide 117 of 189 Twin-loop weldless chain is a general-purpose chain. The chain is not recommended for overhead lifting. Caution is recommended when handling this chain, as it easily pinches. Each link is a twin loop.

24 Coil chain Slide 118 of 189 Coil chain is made from connecting individual inks together. Coil chains are identified by the diameter of the links and are available in 1/4-inch and larger sizes.

25 Coil chain repair link Slide 119 of 189 Coil chain repair links are used to attach hooks and swivels to coil chain. This repair link is placed through the chain link and eye on the piece being attached to the chain; and then the repair link is closed, using a hammer or vice. The end of the repair link passes through the loop and is peened to complete the procedure. Chain repair links are identified by the diameter of the link.

26 Wire rope clamp Slide 120 of 189 Wire rope (cable) has been used for many purposes and requires the end of the wire rope to be anchored to something. For the purpose of anchoring, a loop is formed in the wire rope and fastened with a pair of wire rope clamps. The size and strength of the clamps are matched to the wire rope. Generally, two or more clamps are used to provide a safety factor.

27 Wire rope thimble Slide 121 of 189 Wire rope thimbles are used to keep the loop in wire rope. Wire rope thimbles also provide a wearing surface and maintain the shape of the wire rope. Keeping the eye in the end of wire rope helps when connecting the wire rope to anchoring structures or connections using hooks and clevis devices.

28 Slip hook, clevis-type Slide 122 of 189 A slip hook is a hook at the end of a chain that is wrapped around a load and tightens as the chain slips through the hook when the chain is pulled. The slip hook is attached to the chain with the clevis and pin. The size of a slip hook is designated by the chain diameter to which it attaches. Slip hooks have a lower working load limit than the same type/size chain or grab hook.

29 Grab hook, clevis-type Slide 123 of 189 A grab hook is a hook at the end of a chain that is wrapped around a load and grabs onto a specific link, preventing the hook from slipping when a load is placed on the chain. The clevis made into the hook is used to attach the hook to the chain. The size of a grab hook is designated by the diameter of the chain for its intended application.

30 Grab hook, eye-type Slide 124 of 189 The grab hook with eye requires a repair link to attach the hook to the chain.

31 Lap link (chain repair link) Slide 125 of 189 Lap links are a style of repair link used with coil chain. The chain and hook eye are connected to the lap link, and then the open end of the link is closed. The lap end of the repair link is sometimes welded to create a permanent repair.

32 Snap, double-bolt Slide 126 of 189 A double-bolt snap is a connector for attaching items. It is often selected when it is desirable to remove the snap or when the connection is not permanent. Double-end snap bolts are typically used with pet supplies, chain gates, and bracket hangers. They are measured by their length and the size of the snap opening.

33 Peg hook, L-hook Slide 127 of 189 Peg hooks are designed to be used with pegboard. The hook attaches to the holes in the pegboard and provides a way to hang items. Peg hooks are available in several styles and for many storage applications.

34 Peg hook, J-hook Slide 128 of 189 Among their many uses, pegboard hooks are used to store tools and to display merchandise in retail stores. The top of the hook slides into a hole of pegboard; and as the hook is moved into position for use, the secondary pin engages another hole in the pegboard to complete attaching the peg hook to the pegboard.

35 Screw cover, hinged Slide 129 of 189 Screw covers are used to cover the heads of flat head, round head, truss head, pan head, and other flat- bottom fasteners. The hinged cover is placed on the fastener and secured in place as the screw or rivet is tightened. The cover is pressed into the retainer to complete the application. Screw covers are used to protect screw heads and to enhance appearance by hiding the fastener. Many are suitable for both indoor and outdoor use. Common sizes fit #6, #8, and #10 screws.

36 Grease fitting (zerk) Slide 130 of 189 Grease fittings are also called grease zerks. Grease fittings are used to supply grease to bearings and other moving parts. The fittings are screwed or pressed into a portion of the item to be lubricated, with a drilled galley directing the grease to a specific location. Grease fittings are manufactured in straight, 45-degree, and 90-degree angle styles. Sizes are based on the thread for attachment and include 1/8 NPT (National Pipe Thread) and 1/4 NPT.

37 Snap link Slide 131 of 189 Snap links are used for general- purpose applications, such as camping equipment, fitness centers, and playgrounds, as well as for mounting nets for tennis, badminton, and volleyball. The hinged link is spring-loaded and snaps into the closed position to keep the snap connected. Snap links are not designed for heavy loads. A drop of oil on the hinge pin prevents rusting and keeps the snap operating smoothly.

38 Quick chain link Slide 132 of 189 A quick chain link looks like a chain link with a threaded nut for easy attachment and removal. Quick links are made in straight, pear-shaped, and triangular types. The size of the link is measured by the diameter of the metal used to manufacture the link.

39 Low-velocity power load Slide 133 of 189 A power load looks like a 22-caliber cartridge without a bullet and is used to install drive pins in concrete and steel. A special tool is loaded with both a power load and a drive pin. When the power charge is fired, the force seats the drive pin. Power loads are available in different power settings for different applications.

40 Chain, twisted-link machine Slide 134 of 189 Each link is twisted, causing the chain to lie flat.

41 Chain, sash Slide 135 of 189 Sash chain is a flat metal chain for suspension of double hung sash, easily installed. In old houses, the windows were often installed with a counterweight in the wall; these weights were often suspended with sash chain. This light-duty chain has many uses besides window sashes.

42 Chain, jack Slide 136 of 189 Jack chain is a light-duty chain made with double loops. The chain is typically used to attach pins to jack stands or for other light-duty applications.

43 Door pull Slide 137 of 189 A door pull is a bent handle, usually mounted on a plate, adapted for attachment to the surface of a door. Door pulls are mounted with screws or small bolts. The length of a door pull from end to end is used to measure its size.

44 Door pull Slide 138 of 189 Door pulls are manufactured in a large number of sizes, shapes, and finishes. Door pulls are made from several different materials, including steel, brass, copper, wood, and aluminum.

45 Sash lock Slide 139 of 189 A sash lock is a locking device that allows a window to be secured against opening. Sash locks are typically attached with screws.

46 Lag shield Slide 140 of 189 A lag shield is a two-part expansion anchor cast from a rustproof alloy. It has internal threads and is designed for use with a lag bolt. Lag shields offer considerable expansion and are well suited for fastening applications in old masonry structures. Lag shields are inserted into predrilled holes and are sized for specific sizes of lag bolt. Sizes range from 1/4 to 3/4 inch in both short and long versions.

47 Linchpin Slide 141 of 189 A linchpin, also called a quick-lock pin, is an example of a convenience pin. Linchpins are used to connect two parts temporarily but securely. The split ring on linchpins has an end stuck into a hole on the pin. The holes in the pin are on different planes. The position of the split ring ends creates an “over-center” spring action that holds the split ring in the closed position. Some linchpins have a short length of chain attached to the split ring so the pin can be attached close to the location where it is used.

48 Teflon tape Slide 142 of 189 Teflon tape is used to seal the threaded connection in plumbing. An alternative to other sealing methods is to wrap Teflon tape around the threads of the plumbing connectors and when the parts are screwed together, the connection is sealed from leaks.

49 Dowel, fluted Slide 143 of 189 Dowel pins are used as wood fasteners that are glued in place. The fluting on the pin provides a place for glue. Selecting fluted or spiral dowels is a matter of personal preference. A dowel jig is typically used to locate the hole and align the wood to be connected. The hole jig is important to correctly locate the hole for the dowel. Dowel pins are coated with glue and inserted into predrilled holes. Dowel pins range from 1/6 to 1 inch in diameter and from 1/2 inch to 7 inches in length.

50 Dowel, spiral Slide 144 of 189 Dowel pins are used as wood fasteners that are glued in place. The spiral groove on the pin provides a place for glue. A dowel jig is typically used to locate the hole and align the wood to be connected. Dowel pins are coated with glue and inserted into predrilled holes. Dowel pins range from 1/6 to 1 inch in diameter and from 1/2 inch to 7 inches in length.

51 S-hook Slide 145 of 189 The S-hook is a quick, easy way to connect chains, tarp straps, and swivel snaps. It is constructed of high-alloy steel with a zinc-plated finish.

52 Bushing Slide 146 of 189 A bushing is a cylindrical metal lining used to reduce friction. Bushings are machined to fit both the hinge pin and the opening where they will be inserted. Bushings are often made of an alloy metal that has good bearing characteristics.

53 Screw cover Slide 147 of 189 Screw covers that snap into the slot or cross of Phillips screws are a method of covering the head of screws. These screw covers are typically used when appearance is important.

54 Screw, flat head wood slotted Slide 148 of 189 Screws with a smooth shank and a tapered point are for use on wood and simulated-wood products. Flat head wood screws are designed to be installed until the head is flush with the wood surface. The slotted wood screw is driven with a standard screwdriver blade. Wood screws range in size from #3 to #14. Length is measured from the top of the screw head to the end of the point. Flat head wood screw sizes are written, for example, as #8 x 1-1/4 to represent a #8 screw that is 1.25 inches long.

55 Screw, flat head wood (brass) Slide 149 of 189 Flat head wood screws are available in different materials, such as steel, brass, stainless steel, and aluminum. Screws made of the softer metals are easily damaged if caution is not used when driving them.

56 Screw, round head wood (brass) Slide 150 of 189 Round head wood screws are available in different materials, such as steel, brass, stainless steel, and aluminum. Screws made of the softer metals are easily damaged if caution is not used when driving them.

57 Screw, round head wood slotted Slide 151 of 189 Screws with a smooth shank and a tapered point are for use on wood and simulated-wood products. Round head wood screws are designed to be installed until the head makes contact with the wood surface. The slotted wood screw is driven with a standard screwdriver blade. Wood screws range in size from #3 to #14. Length is measured from the bottom of the screw head to the end of the point. The size of a round head wood screw is written as, for example, #8 x 1-1/4 to represent a #8 screw that is 1.25 inches long.

58 Screw, oval head wood slotted Slide 152 of 189 Screws with a smooth shank and a tapered point are for use on wood and simulated-wood products. Oval head wood screws are designed to be installed until the center of the head is flush with the wood surface. The slotted wood screw is driven with a standard screwdriver blade. Wood screws range in size from #3 to #14. Length is measured from the center of the screw head to the end of the point. Oval head wood screw sizes are written, for example, as #8 x 1-1/2 to represent a #8 screw that is 1. 5 inches long. Oval head wood screws are typically used with trim washers.

59 Slide 153 of 189 Screw, Phillips-drive bugle head (drywall or wallboard) Phillips bugle head screws are also called drywall screws and are used to attach drywall to both wood and metal studs. These screws are made from hardened steel, with a very sharp point. Drywall screws are typically #6 or #8 in diameter and range in length from 3/4 inch to 4 inches. Drywall is typically installed with the 1-1/4 inch length. The head of the screw is normally driven so the paper side of the drywall is just dimpled and not broken. This dimple leaves a space for joint compound to hide the screw head. Drywall screws are driven in drywall about every 8 inches.

60 Screw, Phillips-drive galvanized bugle head Slide 154 of 189 Bugle head screws have become very popular with wood projects and are available with various surface treatments to be used in both outdoor and indoor applications. Galvanized screws are dipped in zinc and have a silver/zinc color. Galvanized bugle head screws are available in lengths from 1 inch to 4 inches. Use caution when installing long screws, as excess torque can twist the head off the screw.

61 Screw, round head machine slotted Slide 155 of 189 Machine screws are recognized by the nontapered shank and machine threads. Machine screws are widely used in general assembly. They are manufactured in several head styles. Screw diameter is listed as a number ranging from #0 to 1/2 inch and in lengths from 1/8 inch to 3 inches. Metric sizes are also manufactured.

62 Screw, round head machine slotted Slide 156 of 189 Machine screws with slotted heads are turned with a standard screwdriver. The length of a round head machine screw is the distance from the bottom of the screw head to end of the screw. Machine screw size is stated, for example, as #8 – 1 to represent a #8-diameter machine screw that is 1 inch long.

63 Screw, flat head machine slotted Slide 157 of 189 Flat head machine screws are designed to be installed so the head is flush with the surface. The length of a flat head machine screw is the measured distance from the top of the head to the end of the screw.

64 Screw, fillister head machine slotted Slide 158 of 189 The standard oval fillister head has a smaller diameter than the round head, but is thicker, with a correspondingly deeper slot. The smaller-diameter head increases the pressure applied on the smaller area and can be assembled close to flanges and raised surfaces. The head is formed in counterbored dies to ensure a round head. These screws may be used successfully in counterbored holes.

65 Screw, oval head machine slotted Slide 159 of 189 Oval head machine screws are similar to other machine screws, with the exception that the head is oval when viewed from the side. When an oval head screw is installed, a portion of the head is below the surface, and only a small portion of the screw head projects above the surface.

66 Screw, pan head machine slotted Slide 160 of 189 Pan heads are recommended for new designs to replace round, truss, and binding heads. This type of machine screw provides a low, large-diameter head, but a characteristically high outer edge along the outer periphery of the head. The outer edges of the head are where driving action is most effective for high-tightening torques. Recessed heads have a slightly different head contour.

67 Screw, round head machine (with square nut) Slide 161 of 189 Round head screws are not recommended for new designs; the pan head is the recommended replacement for round head machine screws. The round head was the most universally used design in the past. A disadvantage of the round head is the thin layer of metal near the outer edges of the head, where most of the drive torque is applied. This head design is prone to stripping out the slot when a high torque is applied.

68 Screw, Phillips pan head self-drilling Slide 162 of 189 Pan heads are recommended for new designs to replace round, truss, and binding heads. This head style provides a low, large-diameter head, but characteristically high outer edge along the outer periphery of the head. The heads are thickest where driving action is most effective for high- tightening torques. The heads have a slightly different contour where manufactured with a slotted head. Slotted pan heads are a little less crowned in the center, as compared to a Phillips drive head.

69 Screw, hex washer head self-drilling Slide 163 of 189 Hexagon washer head screws are produced in the same manner as the standard hexagon head but with a washer section in the base of the head to protect the finish of the assembly from the wrench during assembly. The self-drilling point makes this screw well suited for installation with drill drivers. Self-drilling screws remove metal to make a hole, compared to self-tapping screws that displace metal as they create a hole for the screw shank.

70 Screw, pan head sheet metal square-drive Slide 164 of 189 A square-drive screw is less prone to torque out of the screw head (compared to Phillips) and creates a positive drive. Tapping screws fall into two categories: thread-cutting and thread-forming. Thread-cutting screws remove metal during the formation of threads. Thread-forming screws displace metal when driven, instead of removing it; thus, they form a chip-free mating thread. The threads extend the entire length of the screw. This makes it possible to join metal that is held tightly against the underside of the screw head. The sharp point on sheet metal screws enables the screw to pierce thin sheet metal and start forming threads.

71 Screw, Phillips pan head sheet metal Slide 165 of 189 The pan head provides greater driving torque in these screws. The sheet metal screw design has a pointed tip that is very sharp so it can penetrate and start in sheet metal.

72 Screw, oval head tamper proof Slide 166 of 189 This ingenious tamper proof type of head, once assembled, cannot be removed but is driven with a standard screwdriver. This screw is popular due to the amazing economy in producing it in large quantities. This simple design can frequently solve costly assembly problems and maintain tamper proof construction.

73 Screw, hex washer head sheet metal slotted Slide 167 of 189 An indented hexagon head sheet metal screw is an inexpensive wrench head fastener made to standard hexagon dimensions. The hex head lends the screw to power-driver installation. The hex is created completely in a counterbored die and has an identifying depression in the top surface of the head. The washer section in the base of the head protects the finish of the assembly from the wrench during assembly.

74 Screw, pan head sheet metal slotted Slide 168 of 189 Pan heads are recommended for new designs and to replace round, truss, and binding heads. The design provides a low, large-diameter head. The head is characteristically thicker at the outer edges, compared to other designs. This is important, as the outer periphery of the head is where driving action is most effective for high-tightening torques. The sheet metal point on the screw is tapered at the tip and threaded the entire length of the shank. These screws work best when a clearance hole is predrilled.

75 Screw, galvanized hex washer head with neoprene washer Slide 169 of 189 Hex washer head screws with a neoprene washer are typically used to install finished metal siding without damaging the siding and roofing. The neoprene washer also makes a weather-tight seal where the screw passes through the metal.

76 Square head lag bolt Slide 170 of 189 A lag bolt is described as a heavy wood screw with a square or hexagonal head that is to be driven in with a wrench. Lag bolts are used in wood construction and may have other uses. Minimum thread length is normally equal to half the nominal length of the bolt plus 1/2 inch or 5 inches, whichever is less. Hex lag bolts larger than 3/4 inch in diameter and all square lag bolts are rarely available in the marketplace as stock items. The square head lag bolts are used for aesthetic applications and provide a rustic look. Lag bolt sizes range from 1/4 inch to 1-1/2 inches in diameter and are manufactured up to 18 inches long.

77 Screw, Phillips bugle head deck Slide 171 of 189 Bugle head screws have been developed for several special uses. The deck screw is an example; these screws have coarse threads and have been treated with a green coating to resist corrosion and to match the green treated lumber. These screws are available with Phillips, square, and Torx drive heads. Both Phillips and Torx are positive drive with less tendency to torque out of the drive when high torques are applied. Screws are manufactured in several lengths. Select screws at least twice as long as the deck material.

78 Hollow-wall fastener (molly screw) Slide 172 of 189 Hollow-wall fasteners are used to support objects that hang on walls and cannot be attached to the structural framing material. A hole is drilled into the wall just large enough to insert the fastener. With the fastener inserted into the hole, the screw is tightened, causing the body of the fastener to expand, holding the washer end of the fastener tight to the wall. The screw can then be turned out to create an anchor to attach an item on the wall.

79 Thumbscrew Slide 173 of 189 A thumbscrew is typically used as a set screw on items that require frequent adjustment. The large, flat head makes gripping easy and provides some leverage while turning the screw. These screws are designed for light loads and are manufactured in many screw sizes to 3/8-inch diameter.

80 Eye hook Slide 174 of 189 An eye hook is a tapered screw shank with an eye where the head of a screw would be located. Eye hooks are also called eye screws. The screw shank can be screwed into a wooden object leaving the eye above the surface. The eye is typically round and has many uses. Eye screws are sized starting with screw sizes and are available through 5/8-inch diameter; these screws are manufactured in several lengths.

81 Screw hook Slide 175 of 189 A screw hook is an open hook on one end, with a screw shank designed to be turned into wood or other materials. Screw hooks are manufactured in small screw sizes through 3/8-inch diameter. The length of the shank can vary and is selected for a specific application. Screw hooks are inserted into a predrilled hole and turned by the hook end; use caution as the hook may cause injury.

82 Slide 176 of 189 L-hook (square-bent screw hook) The L-hook looks like a 90 ⁰ turn on the end of a screw shank. These hooks are used for many different tasks and are available in sizes starting with small screw diameters to 3/8-inch diameter and varying lengths; they are selected for a specific use.

83 Screw, hex drive cup pointed set Slide 177 of 189 Set screws are commonly used to hold a collar, pulley, gear or the like to a rotating shaft to keep their position relative to each other during use. Cup pointed set screws are some of the most commonly used set screws. The cup point on one end of the set screw cuts into the shaft through a threaded hole in the pulley, collar, or sprocket hub. The cup point then holds the piece in place during use. Set screws have socket, slotted, square, or hex heads. Socket heads are popular, as selecting the set screw length is less important than with other head designs.

84 Screw, Phillips flat head wood Slide 178 of 189 Screws with a smooth shank and a tapered point are for use on wood and simulated-wood products. Flat head wood screws are designed to be installed until the head is flush with the wood surface. The Phillips wood screw is driven with a Phillips screwdriver blade. The three most common sizes are Phillips #1, #2 (most popular), and #3. Wood screws range in size from #3 to #14. Length is measured from the top of the screw head to the end of the point. Flat head wood screw sizes are written, for example, as #8 x 1-1/4 to represent a #8 screw that is 1.25 inches long. Phillips drive is popular with modern drills/ drivers, as they keep the bit centered in the screw head.

85 Stove bolt Slide 179 of 189 Stove bolts got their name because they were commonly used to assemble stoves and stove parts. These fasteners have screw heads (flat, oval or round) for use with screwdrivers and range in diameter from 1/8 to 1/2 inch. Lengths vary from 1/2 inch to 6 inches. Because stove bolts have the screw drive on one end, they have limited application.

86 Screw, Phillips flat head masonry Slide 180 of 189 Concrete screws are used to attach items to concrete through a predrilled hole. The threads on the screw are designed to cut into the concrete to hold the screw in place. The flat head is typically used when the screw must be flush with the surface. These screws are typically available in 5/32- and 3/16-inch diameters and in lengths from 3/4 inch to 4 inches. The shanks on these screws are hardened to withstand high torque loads during installation.

87 Screw, hex washer head masonry Slide 181 of 189 Concrete screws are used to attach items to concrete through a predrilled hole. The threads on the screw are designed to cut into the concrete to hold the screw in place. The hex head is typically used when the screw is not required to be flush with the surface. These screws are typically available in 5/32- and 3/16-inch diameters and in lengths from 3/4 inch to 4 inches. The shanks on these screws are hardened to withstand high torque loads during installation.

88 Screw, pole barn Slide 182 of 189 Pole barn screws have been developed to attach metal siding and roofing material to pole buildings. The head is designed with a hex washer style for efficient installation with power tools. The screw also has a neoprene washer under the head to prevent leaks. The screw shank is threaded its entire length, with a pointed end, creating a self-starting feature. When used to install metal roofing, the screw is typically inserted at one of the vertical or near vertical surfaces to reduce leaking. It is never inserted in the valley of the roofing material.

89 Washer, internal tooth lock Slide 183 of 189 A lock washer is used to prevent a nut or bolt from loosening due to vibration. When special holding power is needed, a toothed lock washer is commonly used. These washers have many sharp, heat- treated teeth to grab into the surfaces pressing against the washer. Toothed washers are identified by their bolt size. When under 1/4 inch in diameter, they are identified by the numerical screw size. Internal tooth lock washers are used with small-head screws and where it is desirable to hide the teeth, either for appearance or to prevent snagging.

90 Washer, spring lock Slide 184 of 189 A common method of keeping nuts and bolts from loosening due to vibration is the use of a spring lock washer. These washers are made of tough spring steel. At one point, they are split, and one end of the split is bent up. Typically, lock washers are placed under a nut but can be used under a bolt head. When the nut or bolt is tightened, the bent end is compressed, and the sharp edge grabs into the metal surfaces to prevent the nut from vibrating loose. The size of a lock washer is indicated by the bolt or screw diameter. For easy assembly, the inside diameter of the lock washer is slightly larger than the bolt or screw.

91 Washer, flat Slide 185 of 189 Flat washers provide an increased bearing surface for the head of a screw or bolt. This distributes the load over a larger area. The standard flat washer is produced in light, medium, heavy, and extra- heavy-duty series. The series refers to the thickness of the washer. Flat washers are identified by the bolt or screw size for which they are used. They are also identified by the outside diameter.

92 Washer, flat fender Slide 186 of 189 Fender washers are similar to standard flat washers in shape but have a much larger outside diameter. The increased diameter distributes the load over a greater area, preventing damage to the surface under the washer. These washers are identified by their bolt size rather than the opening in the washer. The washer opening is slightly larger than the bolt size to make assembly easier.

93 Slide 187 of 189 Washer, external tooth lock When special holding power is needed, the tooth washers are commonly used. External tooth lock washers are used under larger- headed screws and bolts and where snagging is not a problem. External tooth lock washers are sized by the bolt size they fit. Washers smaller than 1/4 inch are identified by the screw size they are designed to fit.

94 Washer, trim Slide 188 of 189 A trim washer provides increased bearing surface for a screwhead and improves the appearance of the fastener. Trim washers should match the type of material used to manufacture the screw.

95 The End Quit This set of images was photographed by David Riecks and Dave Wilson, ITCS, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois. The presentation was reviewed by Dr. Joe Harper, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at the University of Illinois. University of Illinois 1917 South Wright Street Champaign, IL (900) Clicking Quit returns you to the Master Navigation Slide. Slide 189 of 189


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