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Dealing With and Responding to IEQ Issues Risk Management and Safety Conference J. Michael Taylor, MSPH, CIH Manager Health and Environmental Issues LDS.

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Presentation on theme: "Dealing With and Responding to IEQ Issues Risk Management and Safety Conference J. Michael Taylor, MSPH, CIH Manager Health and Environmental Issues LDS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dealing With and Responding to IEQ Issues Risk Management and Safety Conference J. Michael Taylor, MSPH, CIH Manager Health and Environmental Issues LDS Church, Risk Management Division August 10, 2006

2 Mold Risks Recognized Anciently n Leviticus 14:33-48 n Homeowners with mold contamination on their walls were instructed to scrape it off, then have the area checked by a priest. n If successive scraping or cleaning did not keep the mold from returning, the house was to be destroyed with the debris dumped in an unclean place

3 Church Unit: Various—Florida USA Date: August-September 2004 Impact: Wind and water damage to 27 meetinghouses Florida Hurricanes Charlie, Francis, Ivan, Jeanne

4 Name: Hurricane Katrina, Monday, August 29, 2005 Description: Over eight million dollars damage to over 40 buildings. Four buildings over one million.

5 Name: Waveland, MS Description: Beachfront house

6 Name: Waveland, MS Description: Bathtub near beachfront

7 Name: Waveland, MS Description: Damage from twenty foot tidal surge

8 Name: Waveland, MS Description: Remains of chapel (not LDS)

9 Name: New Orleans 1, 2 Meetinghouse Description: Exterior

10 Name: New Orleans 1,2 Meetinghouse Description: Water line on meetinghouse fence

11 Name: New Orleans 1,2 Meetinghouse Description: Hallway

12 Name: New Orleans 1,2 Meetinghouse Description: Clerk’s desk on rostrum

13 Name: New Orleans 1,2 Meetinghouse Description: Rostrum

14 Name: New Orleans 1,2 Meetinghouse Description: Chapel

15 Name: New Orleans 1,2 Meetinghouse Description: Sacrament preparation room

16 Name: New Orleans 1,2 Meetinghouse Description: Sisal

17 Name: Pascagoula Meetinghouse Description: Exterior

18 Name: Pascagoula Meetinghouse Description: South hallway

19 Name: Pascagoula Meetinghouse Description: Cultural Hall

20 Name: Pascagoula Meetinghouse Description: Moisture meter measurement, men’s restroom

21 Name: Pascagoula Meetinghouse Description: Hex Screws not tightened on automated OA damper, manual OA damper open

22 Name: Pascagoula Meetinghouse Description: Condensation on coil housing, water on mechanical room floor

23 Name: Pascagoula Meetinghouse Description: Water leaking from rusted out drain pan

24 Name: Pascagoula Meetinghouse Description: Make up air from chapel air handler coming from attic. Manual damper closed.

25 Name: Waveland Meetinghouse Description: Building Exterior

26 Name: Waveland Meetinghouse Description: Manual damper shut. Automated damper not functional.

27 Name: Waveland Meetinghouse Description: Building remediation and air sampling

28 Name: Waveland Meetinghouse Description: Moisture-saturated plywood

29 Name: Waveland Meetinghouse Description: Condensation on chapel ceiling

30 Name: Waveland Meetinghouse Description: Visible mold growth on base of rostrum

31 Name: Slidell LA Meetinghouse Description: Building exterior

32 Name: Slidell LA Meetinghouse Description: Automated OA damper disconnected

33 Name: Slidell LA Meetinghouse Description: Humidification system

34 Name: Slidell LA Meetinghouse Description: Carpet water stains in cultural hall

35 Name: Slidell LA Meetinghouse Description: Relief society room diffuser with mold growth

36 Name: Jacksonville Beach FL Meetinghouse Description: Building exterior

37 Name: Jacksonville Beach FL Meetinghouse Description: Automated OA damper for cultural hall open and disconnected

38 Name: Jacksonville Beach FL Meetinghouse Description: Aspergillus mold growth on organ

39 Name: Pocatello Welfare Family Services Office Description: Building exterior

40 Name: Pocatello Welfare Family Services Office Description: Sampling for trace VOCs

41 Name: Pocatello Welfare Family Services Office Description: Sampling for mold

42 Lessons Learned n Water-damaged buildings have a higher risk of mold problems likely related to residual moisture n Most meetinghouses have HVAC problems n HVAC fans should run continuously in occupied mode n HVAC systems not designed to reduce elevated moisture loads n Outdoor air damper management is critical in hot, humid climates

43 Lessons Learned n Control of structural moisture and airborne humidity prevents mold growth and reoccurrence of mold growth n Best practices should be followed for water damage restoration and mold remediation Continued

44 HVAC Systems in Older Buildings n Each building is unique n Most buildings were designed with a ventilation rate of 5 cfm of outdoor air per occupant n OA dampers are often open bringing hot, humid air into buildings.

45 Outdoor Air Dampers n In hot, humid climates, OA dampers should be closed in unoccupied mode n Automated dampers should open in occupied mode n Manual OA should be balanced n Manual OA dampers may be closed temporarily after water damage n OA dampers should be regularly inspected and maintained

46 IAQ Assessment Guideline IAQ Assessment Guideline is core process n Log complaints n Conduct a background assessment n Conduct a building walk-through n Assess HVAC system performance n Determine possible sources of mold problems n Develop an action plan n Get professional help if needed n Communicate with occupants and management

47 Log Complaints Log Complaints using Indoor Air Quality Report

48 Log Complaints Review forms for the following: n IEQ discomforts n Signs or symptoms of health problems n When did the discomforts or symptoms begin and how often did they occur? n Did the discomforts and symptoms continue outside the building? n Dates and nature of IEQ episodes n Comments that may help identify sources of IEQ problems

49 Conduct Background Assessment Gather the following historical information: n Age of the building n Type of construction n Types of finishing materials n Age and type of HVAC system n Recent renovations n Previously reported air quality problems n Quality and frequency of maintenance and custodial service

50 Conduct Walk-Trough Look at the building and record all your findings: n Layout and potential air-flow problems n HVAC equipment for potential chemical or microbiological problems. n Storage places for chemicals and supplies n Outside air-intake locations n Outside air dampers to see if they are open and operating n Temperature levels outside and inside n Check humidity and carbon dioxide levels if monitoring equipment is available

51 Carbon Dioxide n Ambient levels ppm n Exhale about 4.5% or 40,000 ppm n Occupational limit 5,000 ppm n IDLH level 50,000 ppm n ASHRAE – no greater than about 700 ppm above outdoor levels will satisfy most people’s perception of body odor n Levels greater than 1000 ppm does not necessarily indicate poor IEQ

52 Human Occupancy Factors n Use oxygen n Produce carbon dioxide n Produce heat n Produce moisture n Produce odors - Body odor - Fragrances - Chemicals (e.g., perchloroethylene)

53 Assess HVAC System Performance n Look closely at HVAC equipment to see if it is working properly n Look for drain pans, heating and cooling coils, heat exchangers, and other potential contaminant sources n Review maintenance schedules for filter changes and cleaning n Record all findings

54 Determine Possible Causes 1. Inadequate Ventilation n Closed dampers n Blocked or clogged intake and exhaust vents n Not enough outdoor air n Poor air distribution n Draftiness n Temperature and humidity differences n Incorrect air filtration n Dirty filters, coils, ductwork, etc.

55 Determine Possible Causes 2. Inside Contamination n Air fresheners n Copy machine toner n Stored cleaners and maintenance chemicals n Stored paints and adhesives n Stored lawn and garden chemicals n Incorrectly diluted cleaning agents n Insecticides, pesticides and other chemicals n Leaking heat exchangers n Loose and disconnected flues n Dry traps in floor drains n Broken sewer lines Continued

56 Determine Possible Causes When reviewing finishing materials, look for- n Recently installed carpets and wall covering n Recently installed excessive uncured adhesives n Recently installed material that is fibrous, odd smelling, or unfamiliar n Recently installed paints, varnishes, and other finishes n Ask about plans, specifications, and labels that might indicate the actual products installed Continued

57 Determine Possible Causes 3. Outside Contamination n Airborne pollutants from on-site and off-site sources n Exhaust stacks too close to air intake ducts n Air intake ducts close to sources of automobile exhaust n Pollen and allergy-causing plaints near air intakes n Blocked and broken flues n Blocked air intake grilles Continued

58 Determine Possible Causes 4. Microbiological Contamination n Standing water in the HVAC system or signs that it has occurred n Water damage to carpets and other furnishings n Accumulation of dust and dirt Continued

59 Sources of Building Moisture n Airborne humidity from OA n Storm water (gray) n Flood water (brown) n Sewage water (black) n Plumbing leaks n Frozen plumbing or sprinklers n Irrigation water infiltration n Groundwater infiltration n Condensation n Vapor barrier failure

60 Dehumidification Systems n HVAC systems should be properly maintained and operated to control indoor humidity to less that 60% relative humidity n In hot, humid climates, dehumidification systems should be installed - Low level priority, Ave. summer dew point < 60F (135 gr/lb) - Medium, < 65F (140 gr/lb) - High, < 70F (145 gr/ lb)

61 A PPROVED A REAS FOR D EHUMIDIFICATION  140 Grains, Authorized for Dehumidification Options II & III 135 to 139 Grains, Authorized for Dehumidification Option II < 135 Grains, Not Authorized for Dehumidification

62 Develop an Action Plan n Once you have identified potential sources of indoor air contaminants, develop an action plan to contain or eliminate them, then carry out the plan. n If the steps taken in your plan do not eliminate the sources of the contaminants and eliminate the air quality complaints, get an industrial hygienist with expertise in indoor environmental quality to conduct a professional investigation which may include air sampling.

63 Keep Building Occupants Informed n Keep management informed about complaints received and actions taken n Provide building occupants information on the assessment findings and action plan

64 Types of IEQ Complaints n Determine if you are dealing with a problem building or if you are dealing with sensitive building occupants n Building-associated symptoms formerly known as ‘sick’ building syndrome may or may not be associated with building deficiencies n Building-related illness are rare situations which can include infectious, allergic, or toxic diseases

65 The “Human” Side Characteristics of situations that are not resolved by improving the environment: n Initial response inadequate n Investigation inadequate (or perceived to be inadequate) n Anger n Group is formed n Distrust and fear n Goals change

66 Indoor Air Quality Progression If Psycho-social factors are not considered: n Stage One: Trigger – Directs attention towards the environment. Sets things in motion n Stage Two: Promotion – Reinforcement with the idea that there is a problem with the environment n Stage Three: Reaction – Perceived inadequate response. Anger and polarization n Stage Four: Spread – Escalation of the conflict. Anxiety, panic, and fear n Stage Five: Undesirable Resolution – Loss of control. Third party involvement

67 Additional Resources n IAQ Assessment Guideline, Section 5, Safety, Health, and Environmental Manual n Construction Guidelines for IEQ Fact Sheet n Ozone Generator Fact Sheet n Water Damage Restoration Fact Sheet n Portable Air Cleaner Fact Sheet n Humidity Monitoring Fact Sheet


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