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Foundations of Real Estate Management BOMA International ® Module 3: Building Operations I Heating, Ventilating, and Cooling the Building ®

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Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Real Estate Management BOMA International ® Module 3: Building Operations I Heating, Ventilating, and Cooling the Building ®"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foundations of Real Estate Management BOMA International ® Module 3: Building Operations I Heating, Ventilating, and Cooling the Building ®

2 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 2 ® Objectives  List the three components of the HVAC system  List the three tasks of the ventilation system  Explain why it is important to balance outside air and exhaust air pressures, and tell what happens in a commercial building if the pressures are uneven  Trace the flow of air through the duct work distribution system

3 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 3 ® Objectives  Describe how electric reheat coils in a VAV box provide heat  Describe how baseboard heating systems provide heat  Describe the refrigeration cycle  Describe the chilled water cycle  Describe the condenser water cycle  List at least five methods to improve efficiency of heating and cooling functions

4 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 4 ® HVAC Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning

5 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 5 ® Ventilation  Provides outside air  Removes stale air  Filters

6 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 6 ® Ventilation Outside Air Damper Photo courtesy of PM 101

7 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 7 ® Ventilation Variable Frequency Drive Photo courtesy of Transwestern

8 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 8 ® Ventilation It’s a continuum No outside air 100% outside air Maximum energy efficiency Minimum energy efficiency Minimum IAQ Maximum IAQ

9 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 9 ® Ventilation Free cooling Using outside air to condition the space

10 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 10 ® Ventilation Exhaust Removing odors and carbon dioxide

11 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 11 ® Ventilation Separate exhaust for kitchens and restrooms

12 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 12 ® Ventilation Ensure restaurant tenants clean their exhaust system regularly

13 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 13 ® Ventilation  Plenum Return  Ducted Return

14 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 14 ® Ventilation  Partition Walls  Demising Walls  Fire Dampers  Protection

15 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 15 ® Ventilation Photos courtesy of Transwestern

16 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 16 ® Humidity ASHRAE recommends 50% relative humidity (range of 30-60%)  Dehumidification  Humidification (rare)

17 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 17 ® Pressure The Goal: Pressure In = Pressure Out

18 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 18 ® Pressure Over Pressurization  More air is brought in than is exhausted  Inoperable exhaust fan, incorrect VFD settings  Front doors will not close properly  People feel pressure (like on airplane)  HVAC becomes inefficient

19 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 19 ® Pressure Under Pressurization  More air exhausted than brought in  Inoperable outside air fan, incorrect VFD settings  Front doors hard to open  HVAC becomes inefficient  Façade will leak

20 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 20 ® Filtration Filters remove dust, debris, insects, and other contaminants  Pleated filters v. fiberglass filters  HEPA filters  Charcoal filters for odors  Changed routinely

21 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 21 ® Air Distribution  Air Handler  Trunk Line  Branch Line  VAV Boxes/Terminal Units  Supply Air Diffusers

22 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 22 ® Air Distribution - Zoning  Areas of the building operate differently from one another  Zones determined by:  Function/Use  Location

23 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 23 ® Air Distribution Air Handling Unit (AHU) or Air Handler

24 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 24 ® Air Distribution VAV Box – controlled by a thermostat

25 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 25 ® Air Distribution Supply Air Diffuser

26 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 26 ® Air Distribution Trunk and Branch Ducts VAV Boxes and Supply Air Diffusers

27 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 27 ® Thermostat  Types  Pneumatic  Direct Digital Control (DDC)  Set point temperature  Impossible to please everyone  Location

28 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 28 ® Thermostat  ASHRAE-recommended set points  71 o F for heating (68-75 o F)  76 o F for cooling (73-79 o F)  Balance tenant comfort with energy efficiency

29 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 29 ® Thermal Layering Temperature is measured in the middle 1/3 (On top of the desk) Bottom 1/3 is coolest (space heaters) Heat Rises – Top 1/3 is warmest

30 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 30 ® Space Heaters

31 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 31 ® Heating Involves adding heat

32 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 32 ® Heating Fuel Sources  Electricity  Natural Gas  Heating Oil

33 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 33 ® Heating Systems  Central  Local

34 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 34 ® Heating  In most buildings, heating occurs only around perimeter – not in core  Air handler provides cooling to entire building  Electric heaters in perimeter VAV boxes heat perimeter as needed

35 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 35 ® Heating  Baseboard heating  Electric  Hot water or steam  Under floor or sidewalk (radiant)  Interlock

36 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 36 ® Cooling Involves removing heat

37 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 37 ® Cooling Just 3 Loops  Refrigerant Loop  Chilled Water Loop  Condenser Water Loop The loops do not mix!

38 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 38 ® Cooling The Refrigeration Loop/Cycle  Refrigerant  Compressor  Condenser  Expansion Valve

39 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 39 ® Cooling Refrigerant  Fluid that absorbs heat  Moves from liquid to gas (add heat) and back to liquid (remove heat) easily  Boiling point is low: o F  Gas at room temperature

40 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 40 ® Cooling Compressor  Applies pressure  Changes refrigerant from low pressure gas to a high pressure, super-heated vapor

41 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 41 ® Cooling Condenser  Rejects heat outside building  Either air cooled or water cooled  Enters as a super-heated vapor  Leaves as a high temperature, high pressure liquid

42 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 42 ® Cooling Expansion Valve  Sprays liquid into a fine mist  Reduces pressure and cools refrigerant

43 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 43 ® Cooling Evaporator  Transfers heat from building to refrigerant  Heating the refrigerant causes it to boil  Heated refrigerant then passes to compressor and the cycle continues…

44 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 44 ® Cooling The refrigeration cycle is nothing more than changing the refrigerant from a liquid to a gas and back to a liquid…over and over again It’s a closed loop system

45 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 45 ® Cooling The Refrigeration Cycle

46 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 46 ® Cooling Heat always moves from higher to lower temperature

47 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 47 ® Coils and Bundles  Coils  Transfer heat between air and refrigerant  Bundles  Transfer heat between liquid and refrigerant

48 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 48 ® Coils and Bundles Photo courtesy of PM 101 Coils

49 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 49 ® Coils and Bundles Shell and Tube Bundles

50 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 50 ® Moving Heat from Inside to Outside  Chilled Water Loop  Rejects heat from occupied spaces to the refrigerant  Condenser Loop (air-cooled) or Condenser Water Loop (water- cooled)  Rejects heat from the refrigerant to outside of the building

51 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 51 ® Cooling Chilled Water Loop  Water treatment is critical  Picks up heat in evaporator coil (in AHU) and takes heat to refrigerant loop  Cooler chilled water returns to evaporator coil to start process over again  As heat is removed, cooler air is blown through duct system by the AHU

52 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 52 ® Cooling Condenser Water Loop (water-cooled)  Water treatment is critical  Picks up heat in refrigerant loop loop and takes heat to heat to cooling tower

53 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 53 ® Cooling Cooling Tower  Condenser water pipes bathed in cool water sprayed inside cooling tower. Large fans also help transfer hea t  Heat is transferred to outside  Cooler condenser water is pumped back inside to start cycle again

54 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 54 ® Cooling Condenser Loop (air-cooled)  Air is blown over refrigerant loop to reject heat

55 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 55 ® Cooling  Water- or Air-Cooled Systems  Chillers  Self-Contained Units (SCUs)  Air-Cooled Systems  Rooftop Units (RTUs)  Split System  Heat Pump

56 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 56 ® Cooling Chiller Photo courtesy of PM 101

57 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 57 ® Cooling Self-Contained Unit (SCU) Photos courtesy of PM 101

58 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 58 ® Cooling Rooftop Unit (RTU) Photo courtesy of Thomas J. Easley

59 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 59 ® Cooling Split System Photo courtesy of Thomas J. Easley

60 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 60 ® Cooling Heat Pump

61 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 61 ® Piped Systems  Types  2 Pipe  4 Pipe  Fan coil units

62 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 62 ® Free Cooling Rejecting heat without using the compressor Flat plate heat exchanger Photo courtesy of Transwestern

63 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 63 ® Control Systems  Building Automation System (BAS)  Energy Management System (EMS)

64 Foundations of Real Estate Management Module 3: Building Operations I 64 ® Controlling HVAC Costs  Optimize EMS  Use free cooling  Pay attention to weather  Coasting  Check temperatures with hand-held thermostat  Control tenant adjustment abilities  Aggressive water treatment  Keep all components clean


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