Presentation on theme: "1 The ABCs of IAQ Why Focus on Indoor Air Quality? What Can We Do? Deborah Moore Green Schools Initiative."— Presentation transcript:
1 The ABCs of IAQ Why Focus on Indoor Air Quality? What Can We Do? Deborah Moore Green Schools Initiative
2 Why Focus on Indoor Air Quality? Children spend most of their day indoors Poor indoor air quality exposes students and staff to chemical, biological, and particulate contaminants and pollution. Such exposures cause a wide range of disease and health problems, including asthma. Asthma is single largest cause of school absences from chronic conditions. Absenteeism costs schools lost revenue
3 Asthma – A Common Disease Affects >30 million people in U.S. 1/3 are children #1 cause of child hospitalization #1 child chronic health condition #1 chronic illness causing school absences
4 Asthma Rising 42% overall increase in the U.S. since 1980 Among children, 58% increase since 1980 Deaths increased by 78% Changes are too rapid to be genetic
5 Report to the California Legislature: Environmental Health Conditions in California's Portable Classrooms Inadequate flow of fresh air Inadequate flow of fresh air –inadequate 40% of the time –seriously deficient 10% of the time Ventilation turned off for NOISE. Ventilation turned off for NOISE. –60% of the teachers in portables –23% in traditional classrooms Equipment in poor maintenance Equipment in poor maintenance –Dirty filters, blocked outdoor air dampers, poor condensate drainage The
6 Studies confirm health benefits of good IAQ Respiratory Illness “…reduced ventilation rate was associated with increases in confirmed respiratory illness.” Fisk (2000) Dampness associated with asthma. Student Absenteeism “…lower ventilation rates resulted in increased student absence.” Shendell et al. (2004), Milton et al. (2000) Academic Performance “…Performance in both math and reading tests increased with ventilation rate. Test scores increased about 13% from classrooms with the lowest ventilation rates” Shaughnessy, R.J., et al. (2006)
7 Building-Related Illness Teachers have been complaining of recurring headaches, nausea, eye irritation, itchy skin, difficulty concentrating, and frequent URI symptoms. They are also complaining of a musty odor, and black material that may be mold on the ceiling tiles. Building evaluation –Ventilation rate, condition of ventilation –Temperature, relative humidity –Water intrusion, mold measurements –Gases (including CO, CO2) –VOCs (formaldehyde) –Particulate matter (including fiberglass)
9 Control Airborne Contagion Pollutants may be viral, bacterial, or fungal or …
10 Control toxic emission sources from cleaners.
11 Control toxics from pesticides Cancers – childhood and adult Birth defects and Reproductive harm Developmental disabilities Neurologic toxicity Respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma) Endocrine disruption Immunotoxicity Use Integrated Pest Management/IPM
12 Control toxic emission sources from interior furnishings
13 Key Toxicants in School Buildings Formaldehyde, other VOCs, and SVOCs Phthalates (softener used in polyvinyl chloride or vinyl) Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs) Heavy metals
14 Vinyl and its additives Vinyl (PVC) - most widely used plastic + 14 billion pounds per year in No. America* - 75% used in construction and buildings Flooring, wall covering, fabric, wall and corner guards, window treatments, etc. Health outcomes Creates dioxin (one of most potent carcinogens known to humans) Phthalates – respiratory and other potential health problems * American Plastics Council, Resin Review 2002
16 Control pollutants brought in from the outdoors.
Optimize Ventilation 17
18 #1 Minimum ventilation rate in each occupied space. California Building Code Title 24 Section 121 California Building Code Title 24 Section 121 –“15 cfm per person times the expected number of occupants.” Cal-OSHA Title 8 CCR Section 5142 Cal-OSHA Title 8 CCR Section 5142 –“The HVAC system shall be maintained and operated at least the quantity of outdoor air required by the State Building Standards Code, Title 24, Part 2, California Administrative Code, in effect at the time the building permit was issued.”
19 #2 Reduce cooling and heating loads when possible. Lighting Lighting Envelope Insulation Envelope Insulation Solar orientation, glazing and shading Solar orientation, glazing and shading Roofs Roofs Thermal mass Thermal mass Shading Shading Equipment-energy star Equipment-energy star
20 #3 Specify 100% outside air when possible Avoids recirculation of air contaminants. Avoids recirculation of air contaminants. Include energy recovery device to avoid energy waste Include energy recovery device to avoid energy waste
21 #4 Aim to use efficient HVAC components. Efficient to separate functions –Ventilation –Cooling –Heating Filters – Merv 10 or higher Filters – Merv 10 or higher Ducts – keep clean, no biocides Ducts – keep clean, no biocides
22 Energy Efficient Systems are needed. “Report on metrics appropriate for small commercial customers” (PG&E service territory),
23 #5 E fficient HVAC- Filters MERV 10+ ASHRAE Standard 52.2 or better. MERV 10+ ASHRAE Standard 52.2 or better. Specify that Digital Control System and Energy Management System monitor and track filter pressure. Specify that Digital Control System and Energy Management System monitor and track filter pressure. Change filters regularly Change filters regularly
24 #6 Occupancy sensors and sequencing inputs Use occupancy sensors to turn off when there are no occupants. Use occupancy sensors to turn off when there are no occupants. Offer occupant thermal comfort adjustments Offer occupant thermal comfort adjustments Program in hours of operation, temperature and relative humidity setpoints. Program in hours of operation, temperature and relative humidity setpoints. Program in pre-occupancy flush out and solar night cooling. Program in pre-occupancy flush out and solar night cooling.
25 #7 Acoustic limits 35 dBA max, 55dBC max ANSI Standard S dBA max, 55dBC max ANSI Standard S See the CHPS relocatable HVAC system See the CHPS relocatable HVAC system If the system is too loud it gets turned off! If the system is too loud it gets turned off!
26 IAQ Resources CHPS Guidelines, ASHRAE CHPS Guidelines, ASHRAE CASH FIT Guidebook CASH FIT Guidebook State of CA EPP Task Force: Best Practices Manual State of CA EPP Task Force: Best Practices Manual State of California Procurement Contracts: discounts on products State of California Procurement Contracts: discounts on products School Emergency Repair Program: funding for Williams eligible schools School Emergency Repair Program: funding for Williams eligible schools Proposition 1D Bonds, $100 million incentives for High Performance Schools Proposition 1D Bonds, $100 million incentives for High Performance Schools State regulations and technical support from CADPH, CARB State regulations and technical support from CADPH, CARB EPA Tools for Schools, H-Seat EPA Tools for Schools, H-Seat