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Akira Yamaguchi Professor of Health & Human Habitation Harvard School of Public Health Indoor Environments John D. Spengler, Ph.D. E-119 November 9, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Akira Yamaguchi Professor of Health & Human Habitation Harvard School of Public Health Indoor Environments John D. Spengler, Ph.D. E-119 November 9, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Akira Yamaguchi Professor of Health & Human Habitation Harvard School of Public Health Indoor Environments John D. Spengler, Ph.D. E-119 November 9, 2010

2 Indoor Environmental Quality in Buildings

3 Commercial Building Energy Use Energy Future. American Physical Society (2008) LIGHTING 27% Space Heating 15% Space Cooling 14%

4  Sick Building Syndrome (WHO, 1983) Diagnosis of SBS requires demonstration of an elevated complaint or symptom prevalence that is associated with a particular building, and that symptom patterns do not match other clinically recognized syndromes.

5 Terminology Sick Building Syndrome –Symptoms linked to building –Resolve when not in building –Effect a substantial fraction of occupants

6 Sick Building Symptoms Dry, itchy eyes Nasal irritation Hoarseness, irritated throat, laryngitis Skin problems Fuzzy thinking, memory Irritability, sleep disruption, fatigue Headaches, nausea

7 Potential Building Related Illnesses Contagious Diseases –Influenza –SARS –Common cold (HRV) –Measles –Chicken pox –TB Environmental –Legionnaires –Humidifier fever –Asthma –CO poisoning –Nitrogen Dioxide –Pesticide poisoning –Lung Cancer Radon, asbestos, ETS

8 Triggers of IAQ Concerns Odors, drafts, temperature, humidity Water intrusion Dust, particles Vibrations, visual changes, new equipment, alterations, maintenance Management stresses, labor issues, personal agendas Rumors

9 Sustainability Guidelines Partially Address Health Low VOC’s Ventilation Commissioning CO 2 monitoring LEED and BREEM have IEQ credits

10 IAQ and Building Costs Labor$200 / square foot Financing $ 20 / square foot Energy$ 2 / square foot Cleaning$ 1 / square foot

11 How Sustainable Buildings Could Improve Health & Productivity Sustainable Buildings Superior Work Performance Economic Benefits Better Health Reduced Health Care Costs Less Absence Thermal state Hearing & concentration Vision Attitude Mental performance Improved Indoor Environmental Quality Better design, construction, commissioning & O&M W. Fisk, LBNL, White House Conference, Jan. 2006

12 New construction methods and new materials

13 Molds and chemical indoors

14 Rooftop HVAC System

15 Air Handling & Conditioning Source: EPA

16 Complex Roof Top

17 Standing Water

18 School Unit Ventilators

19 Re-entrapment

20 Air Intakes

21 HVAC Filters

22 Large Filter Banks

23 Mixing Chamber

24 Condensate Drip Pan

25 Scaling from Drip Pan and Slime Mold

26 Dirty coils and energy loss

27 Air Conditioning (AC) Link to Increased SBS Symptoms in Offices Source: Seppanen and Fisk, Indoor Air Journal 2002 Type of ventilation system = Significantly more symptoms = Reference Group = Same #

28 Renewed Interest in UVC

29 Ventilation Ducts

30 Fiberglass Lined Ducts

31 Cleanliness of air handling systems – potential explanation The air handling system is a source of sensory air pollution in buildings Every component seems to generate pollution (European Airless Project 2001) –filters, coils, ducts

32 Dirty Ducts

33 Fiberglass Soundproofing

34 Rodent Nest

35 Adequate Air Mixing

36 62 office printers were investigated for ultra-fine particle Emissions in typical open office space. 4 classes: none emitters, low emitters, medium and high Emitters 60% no or low emitters 13% medium emitters 27% high emitters

37 P/cc 100,000 10,000 1,000 100

38 Supply Register

39 Ventilation cfm / person cubic feet per minute per person – or – l / s – p liters per second per person Fresh Outside Air – delivered indoors

40 Ventilation Requirements 1.5 cfm / person – O 2 demand 2.5 cfm / person – CO 2 dilution 5 cfm / person – old energy standard 10 cfm / person – people without sources

41 Minimum Ventilation Rates Source: EPA

42 ASRAE 62 Standards 62-73 was 5cfm/p 62-81 5cfm/p but 15cfm/p with smoking 62-89 15cfm/p assumed smoking 62-97 15cfm/p excluded smoking 62-2003 separate residential stnd.

43 Ventilation Guidelines Minimum –15 cfm / person Office –20 cfm / person Smoking –60 cfm / person

44 The Evidence for Ventilation: Major Points Higher ventilation rate (higher rate of outdoor air supply) is associated with objectively measured improvements in work performance Higher ventilation rate is associated with reduced respiratory illness, less absence, and reduced sick building symptoms W Fisk, LBNL

45 Performance relative to performance with 6.5 L/s-person (13 cfm/person) Current minimum for offices in most codes Classroom code minimum L/s-p 21426685106cfm/p 0 Seppanen, Fisk, Lei-Gomez (Indoor Air Journal 2005)

46 An example of data on ventilation and short term sick leave Short term sick leave 12 L/s 24 L/s per person 1.16 % 1.96 % 1.6 days per year (Milton et al. 2000) 24 cfm48 cfm per person 40 buildings in study

47 Even in Green Schools Ventilation can be Inadequate

48 The Evidence for Temperature: Major Point High and low temperature is associated with objectively measured decrements in work performance

49 Source: Statistical analysis of research data from 24 studies relating temperature with objectively measured work performance outcomes Seppanen and Fisk (2005) Relative Work Performance vs. Temperature (maximum performance at at 21.8 o C, 72 o F )

50 Acceptability of Indoor Air

51 CRT of PC Build. mat. Carpet 0.8% per 10% in PAQ Perceived Air Quality and Performance Bako-Biro, DTU Ph.D. Thesis, 2004 TEXT TYPING

52 Top Ten Characteristics of a Healthy Building Dry Clean Ventilated Thermal control Acoustic quality Glare control Odor control Air quality –VOCs –Biologicals –Ozone –Particles Space equity Manage workplace stress

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