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Research paper proposal due next Thursday View video 005202 Part 1 : The Movies Begin: The Great Train Robbery, Sac State Library, write brief descriptions.

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Presentation on theme: "Research paper proposal due next Thursday View video 005202 Part 1 : The Movies Begin: The Great Train Robbery, Sac State Library, write brief descriptions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research paper proposal due next Thursday View video Part 1 : The Movies Begin: The Great Train Robbery, Sac State Library, write brief descriptions of the films, technologies, techniques and turn it in to me for credit. You have two weeks to see this video and turn in your notes.

2 Quiz 30 minutes total 2 questions: 15 minutes each
Please put everything away. Take out paper and pen. Write your name, date, and “Art and Photography” on top of your paper.

3 Identify this photograph from the previous lecture: 1) full name and nationality of photographer, 2) title of photograph, 3) date, 4) medium, and 5) photographic movement if relevant. Discuss the photograph in terms of the Trachtenberg reading and previous class lecture. Show what you have learned – give as many facts as you can. Include titles of related works by this and other photographers. How did the public see and respond to works like this? Why?

4 Identify this photograph from the previous lecture: 1) full name and nationality of photographer, 2) title of photograph, 3) date, 4) medium, and 5) photographic movement if relevant. Discuss the photograph in terms of the essay by this photographer, other readings, and class lecture. Display what you have learned – give as many facts as you can. Mention related readings. Include titles of related works by this and other artists. How did the public see and respond to works like this? Why?

5 19th Century Portraiture
“In the summer of 1861 it was stated that 33,000 people made their living from the production of photographs and photographic materials in Paris alone.” Gersheim quoted by Max Kozloff “Nadar and the Republic of Mind”

6 André-Adolphe Disdéri (French, ), uncut sheet of Cartes-de-Visite, albumen contact print from a wet-plate negative, c shot in Disderi's Paris studio. Unknown sitter Disdéri, multiple shot camera, consecutively released shutters A Carte-de-visite was a tiny photographic image mounted on a 2.5 x 4 inch visiting card.

7 André-Adolphe Disdéri, Napoleon III, Empress Eugenie, and son, Eugène Napoleon, albumen print, with carte-de-visite, c.1860, 3 3/8 in. x 2 in. Disderi was Napoleon’s court photographer beginning in May, 1859 when Napoleon III interrupted his march to war to pose for a photograph in Disderi’s studio.

8 Disderi, H.R. H Princess Beatrice, Daughter of Queen Victoria, carte-de-visite, c.1860
André Disdéri, Paul Legrand (clown in white face), uncut cartes de visite sheet, c , albumen print

9 Disdéri, Paris Commune Destruction, 1871
Disdéri, Napoleon III Empress Eugénie, and Prince Eugène, c.1860 Disdéri, Bodies of Dead Communards, 1871

10 Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, French, 1820 –1910)
Self-Portrait, Left & right are from 1863. “Nadar” was derived from his nickname ("tourne a dard") meaning "bitter sting," which he earned for his caricatures

11 Nadar, Panthéon Nadar (detail), 1854, lithograph

12 Nadar & Adrien Tournachon, Pierrot the Photographer, 1854-55, paper print

13 Honoré Daunier, Nadar Elevating Photography to the Level of Art, lithograph, 1862, appeared in Le Boulevard (Parisian newspaper). Edouard Manet, The 1867 World Exhibition, Nadar’s balloon, The Giant, is upper right James Black Boston from a captive balloon, October 13, 1860 Nadar created the first aerial views of cities but first works were lost.

14 Nadar, Catacombs of Paris, 1861 First to photograph with artificial light (Bunsen batteries)

15 Nadar, Sewers of Paris,

16 The theory of photography can be taught in an hour; the first ideas of how to go about it in a day. What can't be taught... is the feeling for light - the artistic appreciation of effects produced by different...sources; it's the understanding of this or that effect following the lines of the features which required your artistic perception. What is taught even less, is the immediate understanding of your subject - it's this immediate contact which can put you in sympathy with the sitter, helps you to sum them up, follow their normal attitudes, their ideas, according to their personality, and enables you to make not just a chancy, dreary cardboard copy typical of the merest hack in the darkroom, but a likeness of the most intimate and happy kind.... Nadar (1857) Nadar, Young Woman, 1859

17 Nadar, Charles Baudelaire, 1856-58

18 Nadar, Edouard Manet, 1874

19 First Impressionist Exhibition 15 April 1874: “Exhibition of the Société Anonyme of Painters, Sculptors, and Printmakers” (left) Nadar (Gaspard-Felix Tournachon) ( ) Nadar¹s Studio at 35 Boulevard des Capucines’ (right) Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873 (31 1/4 x 23 1/4")

20 Nadar, Jules Verne, c.1860

21 Nadar, Gerard de Nerval, 1854-56
This mystic and dreamy poet, reader of Swedenborg and the Cabala, a confirmed eccentric and finally a mad suicide …. Nadar shows us a small, round, bald- headed plebian, seemingly a lumpfaced butcher…. Max Kozloff

22 Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1863

23 Nadar, Georges Sand, 1877

24 Nadar, Franz List at 75, 1886

25 Lady Clementina Hawarden (British, 1822-65)
Lady Clementina Hawarden (British, ). Isabella Grace and Clementina Maude (daughters) in 5 Princes Garden, from Studies from Life, Albumen print from wet collodion on glass negative. England, Allegory

26 Lady Clementina Hawarden, Clementina Looking into a Large Mirror, albumen print from wet collodion negative, c.1864 James McNeil Whistler, Symphony in White, Whistler admired and collected Hawarden’s photographs

27 Hawarden, Girl at the Window, early 1860s Impressionist light effect
Hawarden, Girl at the Window, early 1860s Impressionist light effect. Yet the combination of simple pose and an overt appeal to the imagination is also characteristic of Pre-Raphaelism. Rossetti's drawings of Elizabeth Siddal are an obvious example. Rossetti, Elizabeth Siddal Kneeling, Playing a Double Pipe, pencil on paper, 1854

28 JULIA MARGARET CAMERON (British, b. India 1815 – 1879)
Cameron’s Dimbola Lodge on the Isle of Wight George Frederic Watts Julia Margaret Cameron , oil on canvas, Cameron, Alfred Lord Tennyson, 1865, one of Cameron’s famous artist neighbors on the Isle of Wight

29 Cameron, Annie, My First Success, 1865 Cameron was fifty years old
The habit of running into the dining room with my wet pictures has stained such an immense quantity of table linen with nitrate of silver, indelible stains, that I should have been banished from any less indulgent household. J.M. Cameron “Annals of My Glass House, 1874

30 Cameron’s collodion process
With the model ready, Cameron inserted a large, wet glass plate into her wooden camera, which was equipped with a heavy brass lens. Though briefer than daguerreotype exposure times, she exposed her plates to light for three to eight minutes – too long for any model to hold completely still. Cameron's lens did not cover the large size of her glass plate negatives (about 11x14”), making it impossible to keep the entire image in focus. Resulting prints were printed directly from the negative. Not enlarged. Cameron, Julia Jackson, 1867, albumen print

31 Although Cameron’s exposures averaged about five minutes, she did not use a headrest, instead allowing the sitter’s natural motion to add spiritual life to the picture. The idea that the blur could be used as a strategy was a conceptual break from the portrait ideal in which a sitter was rendered absolutely still.

32 “My first successes in my out-of-focus pictures were a fluke
“My first successes in my out-of-focus pictures were a fluke.. . When focusing and coming to something which, to my eye, was very beautiful, I stopped there instead of screwing on the lens to the more definite focus.” J.M. Cameron Julia Margaret Cameron, My Favorite Picture of All My Works, My Niece Julia, 1867

33 Mother of Virginia Woolf
Cameron, Mrs. Herbert Duckworth (niece Julia Jackson, mother of Virginia Wolfe and Vanessa Bell) 2 of many portraits, , albumen print

34 The issue of focus was critical in defining serious nineteenth-century artistic practice. During the 1860’s Cameron’s work helped establish the issue of selective focus as a criterion of artistic practice. The making of “out of focus” photographs was considered an expressive remedy that shifted the artificial, machine-focus of a camera towards a more natural vision.

35 When I have such men before my camera my whole soul has endeavored to do its duty towards them in recording faithfully the greatness of the inner as well as the features of the outer man. The photograph thus taken has been almost the embodiment of a prayer. J.M Cameron Cameron, Sir John Herschel 1867, albumen print

36 Cameron, Charles Darwin, 1868

37 Cameron, Henry Taylor as Rembrandt, 1865, carbon print Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-portrait, 1658, oil on canvas. Compare lighting and seriousness of pose

38 Compare: William Morris (British, 1834-1896) La Belle Iseult, 1858
Julia Margaret Cameron, Mariana, "She said I am aweary, aweary, I would that I were dead,” 1875 (last line of every stanza in Tennyson’s poem, Mariana) Compare: William Morris (British, ) La Belle Iseult, 1858 Pre-Raphaelite anti-modernity modernism

39 Compare Cindy Sherman, Untitled
Film Still #21, 1978 Cameron, The Echo, 1867, playacting in costume for the camera

40 King Arthur, from Idylls of the King and Other Poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, volume I, plate XII, 1874, albumen, 25.7 x 35.3 cm. The model is William Warder, a local porter at the Yarmouth ferry pier

41 Compare Sally Mann (American, b. 1951) wet plate process
Julia Margaret Cameron, Days at Freshwater c.1870, albumen print

42 Julia Margaret Cameron, Mary Mother
(Cameron’s parlor maid, Mary Hillier) 1867 albumen print Compare: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Beata Beatrix, c , oil on canvas Pre-Raphaelite (British)

43 Cameron, Mary Hillier as Madonna, 2 images in series, c
Cameron, Mary Hillier as Madonna, 2 images in series, c. 1865, albumen silver photographs, 15.6 x 20.0 cm Raphael, Madonna della Seggiolo, c. 1512, oil on canvas, inspiration for madonna series Detail of Raphael’s Sistine Madonna, 1512 Hiller’s children as putti

44 Julia Margaret Cameron
My aspirations are to ennoble Photography and to secure for it the character and uses of High Art by combining the real and ideal and sacrificing nothing of the Truth by all possible devotion to Poetry and beauty. I believe in other than mere conventional topographic photography - map making and skeleton rendering of feature and form without that roundness and fullness of face and feature, that modeling of flesh and limb, which the focus I use only can give. As to spots they must I think remain. I could have them touched out but ... Artists for this reason amongst others value my photographs. Julia Margaret Cameron PICTORIALISM – A SUMMARY Sarah Greenough, from On the Art of Fixing a Shadow, pp Artists of the 1880’s and 1890’s came to believe that their work, through the expression of subjective and abstract states of being, could reveal a higher and more universal reality than that which could be discovered by any scientific method of investigation. This faith in the ability of art to make known the formidable unknown unites the work of both symbolist and art nouveau painters and sculptors with that of the pictorial photographers. In an age that saw the invention of X-rays and with that the ability of photography to reveal things invisible to the human eye, it was, perhaps, not too large a step to the assumption that the camera could not only show man's bones, but also his psyche. For photography, however, a lack of confidence in science cut to the heart of the medium and seemed to contradict much of what had been understood to be essential to the process. Photography had been perceived to be, as Alfred Stieglitz wrote in 1899, the bastard child of art and science; as such, the attributes of science, including accuracy, precision, and most of all verisimilitude, had been considered to be inherent characteristics. As photographers began to refute the scientific heritage of the medium, so too did they deny these attributes and call into question the whole notion of intrinsic properties. Emerson had begun to question the verisimilitude of photography by separating scientific truth from artistic truth. He noted that the photographers should be faithful not to objective, scientific facts, but to the appearance of reality. By the late 1890s, however, truth in pictorial photography was understood to be not a fixed or quantifiable entity, but something relative and subjective; it was defined as the verification of all things through human consciousness, and their statement through human feeling. As truth took a secondary role to the expression of personal sentiment, photographs could no longer be accepted as a priori statements of visual facts. Something more is required than truth to nature, wrote William Murray in 1898 in the American publication Camera Notes, and A. Horsely Hinton went so far as to state that photographers could willfully distort the truth in order to express more forcefully their idea the photograph may even be less pleasing to the public: less truthful to nature, and at the same time be more a work of art. I would rather have the photograph not just exactly as the scene was, but as the artist would have liked it to be, or imagined it might be. A loss of faith in science also meant that pictorial photographers sought to banish from their art all references to scientific objectivism and literalness. The line was clearly drawn: As Emerson noted, when a work presented facts, it was a science; when it presented ideas, it was an art. Also clear was the understanding that facts were precise whereas art was suggestive. This desire to be suggestive and elusive accounts for the indistinct and at times blurred quality of pictorial photographs. It has often been assumed that the pictorialists’ softly focused images were an attempt to make their photographs look less like photographs and more like paintings or the other graphic arts, but while this may have been the result, it was not the intention. Believing that the aim of their art was not to copy nature, but to appeal to the imagination, the pictorialists, like the symbolist artists and writers, thought that the imagination was most profoundly stimulated by suggestion rather than delineation. It may be given as a principle, wrote Hinton in 1900, that the feelings prompted by nature are more perfectly re-created something which suggests than by accurate representation. To name an object, Stephane Mallarme had written only a few years before, is to suppress three-quarters of the enjoyment to be found in the poem .. . suggestion, that is the dream. For these reasons, the pictorialists chose subjects that were not clearly linked to a specific time, event, or place in the external world, but were vague and elusive, like Edward Steichen's The Pond, Moonrise. They sought the nameless view, the anonymous model on which to project their ideas and associations. Even their titles—A Study, Landscape - Morning, Pastoral-- gave few clues about who, what or where they were photographing. Avoiding the use of established symbols whose references were understood rationally, the pictorialists tried to construct a more immediate art that relied on universal experiences to convey meaning. They played on photography's ability to recall memories and associations, yet they also recognized that such memories are rarely sharply defined but more often dreamlike and indistinct, composed of nothing more than a small incident or passing glance. As in Steichen's The Pond, Moonrise, they built their compositions around the expressive potential of light and form, noting that these entities in their purest state often evoked the strongest emotions. And they made an effort to understand the meanings of` line and light in order, as Aurier wrote of the symbolist painters, to use those elements like letters of an alphabet to write poems of their dreams and ideas. The pictorialists envisioned an emotive photography that would appeal not to reason or the intellect, which were the properties of a scientific inquiry, but to intuition. Defying discursive explanation, this photography would engender experience and symbolically communicate the abstract thoughts and subtle feelings which language is inadequate to express. In this way, the pictorialists thought they would become truly creative artists, for their images would not simply revive corresponding thoughts and memories in the mind of the viewer, but create new ones; they would employ the image of concrete things to create abstract ideas. For practically the first time in photography, the specificity and individuality of the objects in front of the camera were of no importance, but were only a vehicle for the expression of an idea. By divorcing photography from its scientific heritage, pictorial photographers also divorced it from reality. Working with the more plastic world of allusion rather than the sharp truths of reality, the pictorialists freely manipulated their prints. They favored printing processes such as carbon, platinum, gum-bichromate, and bromoil, as well as exotic combinations, which either in their initial application or in development allowed for considerable reinterpretation of the negative. To intensify the expressive and tactile quality of their images, they often hand-coated their own paper, which : had been carefully selected for its size, weight, and tooth. The pictorialists' manipulation of their prints was one of the most controversial aspects of the movement and it served many purposes. First, and most obviously, the size, tonal scale, print quality, and variety, even the texture, clearly separated pictorial work from that of the Sunday snapshooter. But the pictorialists' photographs also represented a rebellion against the growing standardization of photography by large, commercial manufacturers. Like other participants in the arts and crafts movement, pictorial photographers were faced with an increasingly mechanized and regularized industry. To reassert their integrity and craftsmanship and to reclaim their field from commercial control, the pictorialists resurrected older processes that allowed for more individualistic expression. Reinforcing the idea of a singular masterpiece, they manipulated their images so extensively in the darkroom that, often, the result was a unique image that could not be duplicated. The pictorialists' prints attacked on other fronts too, with their ability to suppress unwanted details, intensify others, alter tonal scale, even add color, and combine negatives As was clearly expressed by Steichen in his Self-Portrait with Brush and Palette the act of translation became just as important as that of composition. No longer obligated to construct a window on the world or render a depiction of external, scientific truths, the pictorialists continually interjected their presence, their individuality, between the viewer and the original scene, further negating the importance of what was in front of the camera. These large, manipulated prints were not just an attempt to construct more beautiful, elaborate, or even painterly images, but to unite form and content, to make style the physiognomy of the spirit. In this way, the very substance of the photograph-- its surface, color, and form--is its subject. The pencil of nature became the pencil of man as pictorial photographers, according to the English pictorialist George Davison, fulfilled the literal meaning of the word photography--to draw or paint by light.

45 Cameron, Alice Liddell, n.d., albumen print
Lewis Carroll’s Wonderland Alice

46 Lewis Carroll (b. Charles Dodgson, British, ), Alice, 1858, collodion Lewis Carroll on J. M Cameron: "In the evening Mrs. Cameron and I had a mutual exhibition of photographs. Hers are all taken purposely out of focus - some are very picturesque - some merely hideous - however, she talks of them as if they were triumphs of art." Last page of original Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland manuscript, published 1865

47 Compare Lewis Carroll, Alice, 1858, with (right) Sally Mann, Nap Time, 1989, gelatin silver print

48 Lewis Carroll (b. Charles Dodgson, British, ), Irene MacDonald, 1863, albumen silver print, 5 5/8 x 71/2 in

49 Unknown Photographer, The Ghost of Milton, 3 1/2 x 7 in
Unknown Photographer, The Ghost of Milton, 3 1/2 x 7 in., Albumen silver stereograph, c Spirit photography began in the US and spread to Europe

50 (left) Édouard Isidore Buguet (French, b
(left) Édouard Isidore Buguet (French, b. 1840), Fluidic Effect, (right) Theodor Prinz (German, active early 1900s) Ghost, c.1900, Gelatin silver print

51 Theodor Prinz (German, active in the early 1900s) Ghost, c
Theodor Prinz (German, active in the early 1900s) Ghost, c.1900, Gelatin silver print Compare contemporary work (right) by Anna Gaskel (US, b. 1969) Half Life #95, series commissioned by the Menil Collection, 2002, C-Print

52 Eugène Thiébault (French b
Eugène Thiébault (French b. 1825) Henri Robin and a Specter, 1863 Compare contemporary work by Adam Fuss (British b. 1961) From the series My Ghost (Dress), 2001, gelatin silver print photogram, unique piece, 32 x 41 in


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