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Petroleum and Gas Processing(TKK-2136) 14/15 Fall semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W.

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Presentation on theme: "Petroleum and Gas Processing(TKK-2136) 14/15 Fall semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W."— Presentation transcript:

1 Petroleum and Gas Processing(TKK-2136) 14/15 Fall semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu , W , Th , F

2 Outlines 1. Natural gas: Intro and sources 2. Natural gas: Properties 3. Natural gas: Exploration 4. Natural gas processing (overview)

3 Natural gas: Intro What is Natural Gas? Gas obtained from natural underground reservoir Contains mostly methane (CH4) Usually contains some impurities such as H2S and CO2 As one of primary energy sources in Indonesia

4 Natural gas: Intro What is Natural Gas?

5 Natural gas: Intro What is Natural Gas?

6 Natural gas: Intro Pollution comparison

7 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas reserves

8 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas production

9 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas reserves in Indonesia

10 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas reserves in Indonesia

11 Natural gas: Intro

12 Natural gas industry in Indonesia The largest of these are found in: 1. Arun, Aceh (Sumatra) 2. Bontang (East Kalimantan) 3. Tangguh (Papua) 4. Natuna Island

13 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas based on its source 1.Conventional natural gas is usually obtained from Deep reservoir 2.Natural gas usually presents in crude oil (Associated gas) 3.Natural gas in reservoirs that contain little or no crude oil (Non-associated gas) 4.Associated gas is produced with the oil and separated at the casinghead or wellhead 5.Non-associated gas is sometimes referred to as gas-wellgas or dry gas

14 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas based on its source

15 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas compositions

16 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas compositions

17 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas product specification 1.The composition of natural gas varies considerably from location to location 2.Natural gas product specification includes: - Wobbe number, - heating value, - total inerts, - water, - oxygen, -and sulfur content. The first two criteria relate to combustion characteristics. The latter three provide protection from pipeline plugging and corrosion

18 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas properties Colorless, odorless, tasteless, shapeless, and lighter than air

19 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas properties Specific gravity For gas mixtures: Compressibility factor Z can be function of Pr and Tr

20 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas properties Compressibility factor can be function of Pr and Tr

21 Natural gas: Intro Compressibility factor can be function of Pr and Tr

22 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas product specification

23 Natural gas: Intro Liquid product specification 1.As with gases, specifications for liquid products are based upon both composition and performance criteria 2.the performance specifications include Reid vapor pressure, water, oxygen, H 2 S, and total sulfur content 3.Safety considerations make vapor pressure especially important for the liquid products because of regulations for shipping and storage containers

24 Natural gas: Intro Liquid product specification

25 Natural gas: Properties Combustion characteristics 1.Pipeline gas is normally bought and sold (custody transfer) on the basis of its heating value, ex: MMBtu/cuft 2.Heating value: the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it 3. the heating value of a fuel involves two arbitrary but con-ventional standard states for the water formed in the reaction: -All the water formed is a liquid (gross heating value, frequently called higher heating value [HHV]) – including latent heat of vaporization -All the water formed is a gas (net heating value, frequently called lower heating value [LHV]) -the heating value is normally calculated at 60°F and 1 atm (15.6°C and 1.01 atm), standard conditions for the gas industry

26 Natural gas: Properties Wobbe Number 1.defined as the gross heating value (Btu/scf) of the gas divided by the square root of the specific gravity (the ratio of the density of the gas divided by the density of air

27 Natural gas: Exploration Photo courtesy of OSHA

28 Natural gas: Exploration Reprint permitted by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists

29 Natural gas: Exploration Reprint permitted by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists

30 Natural gas: Exploration Reprint permitted by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists

31 Natural gas processing

32

33 Natural gas transportation Pipeline Transmission System

34 Natural gas transportation Floating LNG ConocoPhillips_Cascade_LNG_Project1.jpg

35 Natural gas transportation FSRU


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