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AP side down PA side up.

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Presentation on theme: "AP side down PA side up."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP side down PA side up




















21 Caldwell Sinus Projection Film
This view will provide a clear view of the frontal and ethmoid sinuses. The super orbital rims can be evaluated for fracture when facial bone are of interest. To project the petrous ridges farther down, increase angle to 30 degrees

22 Sinus Lateral Lateral – External auditory meatus externally and mandible inferiorly with supracillary arch superiorly in view. CR centered to zygoma, midway between outer canthus and EAM Midsagittal plane is parallel to IR IPL is perpendicular to IR

23 Lateral Sinus Anatomy

24 Positioning: Waters Prone or seated upright
Chin on bucky -OML 37 angle with plane of cassette Mentomeatal line should be perpendicular to film with mouth closed. Nose 3/4 inch from IR Suspend respiration CR perpendicular to exit acanthion

25 Waters Radiograph Distance from lateral border of skull and orbit equal on each side Petrous ridges projected immediately below maxillary sinuses


27 Modified Parietoacanthial (Modified Waters)
OML 55 degrees to the IR Chin and nose on table Petrous pyramids are seen mid-maxillary sinus CR exits acanthion Blowout Fractures See pg. 355 (Merrill’s 12th Edition)

28 Modified Waters Radiograph
Petrous ridges projected immediately below the inferior border of the orbits Equal distance from lateral orbit to lateral skull on both sides

29 Reverse Waters Supine Extend neck so OML is 37 degree with plane of IR
MML perp Suspend respiration CR perpendicular and enters acanthion

30 Lateral Nasal Bones Semiprone IPL perpendicular
CR perpendicular to the bridge of nose at a point ½ inch distal to the nasion

31 Bilateral Arches - SMV IOML parallel to IR and perpendicular to CR
CR midsaggital and collimate to outer edges of zygoma

32 Oblique Tangential Same position as SMV except head tilt 15 degrees toward side of interest (Merrill’s p ed)

33 Esophagus RAO Left side elevated degrees Center at T-5 or T-6

34 Stomach PA Center at pylorus L2 (midway between xiphoid and umbilicus) Expiration RAO L side elevated degrees Between vertebrae and elevated surface Center at duodenal bulb Lateral Recumbant (R lateral), Erect (L lateral) Between axilla and anterior surface Center at pylorus

35 Small Bowel Central ray at iliac crest (or slightly above for early exposures)

36 Colon PA or AP PA Axial (may be done AP) Bilat Obliques
Center at iliac crest PA Axial (may be done AP) Prone iliac crest CR degrees caudad Sigmoid Colon Smaller IR; CR ASIS Bilat Obliques Lateral Decubitus Lateral Rectum Enter at ASIS

37 Intravenous Urography
KUB Obliques Rotated 30 degrees – kidney farthest from IR is parallel; kiney closest is perpendicular to film AP Bladder CR at ASIS

38 Cystography AP Axial Oblique PA Bladder Lateral 10-15 degrees caudal
CR 2-3 in above pubic syphysis Oblique 40-60 degrees PA Bladder CR 1 in distal to tip of coccyx 10-15 degree cephalad angle Lateral

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