7Dose-rate meters γ - emitter GM-tube Ionisation chamber Scintillation detectorOften designed to meet the requirements to measure one of the operational dose quantities defined in ICRU 47
8Change scale if necessary Making MeasurementsSwitch on before enteringCheck batteriesradiation areaMove monitor slowlyChange scale if necessary
9WIPE TEST Wipe a known surface area with an absorbent material moistened with water or alcohol. Putthe sample in a tube and measure the activityin a well counter or a liquid scintillation counter.(cps-BG)/(Ec*Ew*A) = contamination (Bq/cm2)cps: counts per second for sampleBG: instrument backgroundEc: counter efficiency (cps/Bq)Ew: swipe efficiency (assumed to be 0.1)A: area swiped (cm2)
10Dose Rate MeasurementReliable measurements are necessary in order to control radiation exposure.This is achieved through the use of a range of radiation instrumentation which measure accumulated radiation doses and/or dose rates.
11Film BadgesFilm badges are passive devices that use special photographic film to record any accumulated radiation exposure received over a period of time. Provided the appropriate holder is used, they can measure doses from beta, x, gamma and neutron radiation exposure.Advantages: cheap, provide a permanent record.Disadvantages: not robust (can be affected by water, humidity).
12Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD) TLDs typically are based on the use of lithium fluoride which traps the energy received from ionizing radiation. When heated during the assessment process, the trapped energy is released as light. The amount of light released is proportional to the radiation dose.Depending on the intended use, the lithium fluoride may be in the form of small crystal chips, rods or discs. e.g. finger dosimeters.
13Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters (OSL) OSLs are based on the use of aluminium oxide and, like TLDs, trap the energy received from ionising radiation. They are assessed by exposing the OSL to laser light.
14Direct Reading (‘pocket’) Dosimeters A ‘pocket’ dosimeter is a small pencil-like electroscope which is charged (set to zero) in an external device. An internal scale showing the radiation dose received can be viewed though an eyepiece.Electroscope dosimeters can be subject to spurious readings and do not normally tolerate physical shock well.
15Electronic Personal Dosimeters (EPDs) Electronic Personal Dosimeters (EPDs) are small electronic dosimeters that use a battery to power a detector to measure the accumulated dose. These devices are widely used in industrial and medical applications. They can include a dose rate function and an alarm for pre-determined radiation dose rates.
16Survey MetersA survey meter is used to measure radiation dose rates (sometimes only as an indicative count rate).
17Survey MetersThere is a wide range of survey meters available, from simple geiger detectors through ionization survey meters to neutron detectors.To accurately measure radiation dose rates, survey meters must both respond to the type of radiation under investigation and be calibrated for the radiation energy (eV).It is therefore important that the correct monitoring equipment for any given type of radiation is used. Not doing so may result in failure to detect, or erroneous readings.
18Survey MetersThe simplest meter, the geiger, is very sensitive to even low radiation dose rates but unless suitably compensated, can give very misleading readings at lower radiation energies e.g. x-rays.In very high dose rates, survey meters must continue to respond. Some survey meters may “fold back” and read zero in very high level radiation fields.Equipment suitable for customs purposes will be discussed later.
19Radiation Detection and Dose Rates Equipment that electrically generates ionizing radiation (e.g. x-ray apparatus, linear accelerators etc.) do not emit radiation unless assembled and energized.i.e. the cross-border movement of such apparatus (say from supplier to end-user) does not pose a radiation hazard to Customs officers.
20Radiation Detection and Dose Rates For properly packaged radioactive materials, the international transport regulations prescribe different radiation dose rates for different types of transport packaging.Permitted dose rates generally range from 0 to 2,000 µSv h-1 at the surface of the package and up to 100 µSv h-1 at 1 metre from the surface of the package.Higher dose rates are permitted in special circumstances which will be dealt with later.
21Spectroscopic Analysis During the radioactive decay process every radioisotope emits radiation with distinct energies. The spectrum of energies can be analysed to determine the identity of the radioisotope (or a mixture of radioisotopes) that may be present. Portable instruments are available for this type of analysis.OrtecCanberra
22Where to Get More Information International Atomic Energy Agency, Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources(PGEC), Training Course Series 18 (2002), IAEA, Vienna (2003)International Atomic Energy, Training on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine, Module 02 on Radiation Physics, IAEA, Vienna (https://rpop.iaea.org/RPOP/RPoP/Content/AdditionalResources/Training/1_TrainingMaterial/NuclearMedicine.htm).