Presentation on theme: "An initial Evaluation of a Radiographic film Discovery and History of x-rays Image Perception Radiographic densities How to read a Radiograph (AABCS) Describe."— Presentation transcript:
An initial Evaluation of a Radiographic film Discovery and History of x-rays Image Perception Radiographic densities How to read a Radiograph (AABCS) Describe a fracture and terminology Mechanism of Injury Lines and measurements
Image perception Searching for familiar identifiable patterns or a combinations of patterns. The success or failure of this process depends on a number of factors: –Knowledge, Understanding and Experience. Anatomy and physiology Abnormal and normal appearances. Spatial awareness Attenuating properties of structures Image artefacts Optical illusions
Mach Band Effect The Machband describes an effect where the human mind subconsciously increases the contrast between two surfaces with different densities.
PbBaSO4Bone Muscle FatAir Different density material will attenuate different amounts of x-ray beam. X-ray film
How to read a Radiograph ?
Film Viewing Box / Monitor Ambient lighting No distractions Biscuits and coffee Good Film Viewing Concentration on the part of the observer is crucial. Physical discomfort due to poor ventilation Excessive temp, Humidity Anxieties, domestic and personal distractions Poor health, workload can all effect diagnostic accuracy. High priority is given to optimise image quality How ever little thought is given to optimal image viewing conditions
Why is it important to have TWO views. Why do we need to examine all the views ?
Initial Evaluation of a Radiographic Film Name, Date, Anatomical markers, projections Overall size and shape of the bones –Consistent with age, sex, uniformity Thickness of cortex –thick at mid-shaft, Is it visible all the way round. Density of the bone –Increased or decreased
Bones Step or break in the Cortex Distortion of Trabecular pattern Distortion of bone shape
Cartilage and Joint space: Intra-articular involvement Look for Joint Space narrowing or widening
Soft Tissue Swelling
Black Eye Brow sign Specticles Sign Indirect Signs
Film has edges
There are certain normal anatomical relationships that can be measured or assessed for alignment. These can be of great benefit when trying to spot fractures. Measurements and Lines
the ankle… ° Boehler’s Angle A B C
Summary Start with an overall observation of your radiograph, pt. details, correct hand ? Think of the MOI, adult, child Pitfalls- accessory ossicles Consider soft tissue- occult fractures Once you spot a fracture, carry on to examine rest of the radiograph Describe what you see Use measurements and line to help you