Presentation on theme: "An initial Evaluation of a Radiographic film"— Presentation transcript:
1An initial Evaluation of a Radiographic film Discovery and History of x-raysImage PerceptionRadiographic densitiesHow to read a Radiograph (AABCS)Describe a fracture and terminologyMechanism of InjuryLines and measurements
2Image perceptionSearching for familiar identifiable patterns or a combinations of patterns.The success or failure of this process depends on a number of factors:Knowledge, Understanding and Experience.Anatomy and physiologyAbnormal and normal appearances .Spatial awarenessAttenuating properties of structuresImage artefactsOptical illusions
3Mach Band EffectThe Machband describes an effect where the human mind subconsciously increases the contrast between two surfaces with different densities.
7Good Film ViewingConcentration on the part of the observer is crucial.Physical discomfort due to poor ventilationExcessive temp, HumidityAnxieties, domestic and personal distractionsPoor health, workload can all effect diagnostic accuracy.High priority is given to optimise image qualityHow ever little thought is given to optimal image viewing conditionsFilm Viewing Box / MonitorAmbient lightingNo distractionsBiscuits and coffee
8Why is it important to have TWO views. Why do we need to examine all the views ?
19Types of Fractures Buckle/Green Stick Comminuted Avulsion Pathological StressImpacted
20Initial Evaluation of a Radiographic Film---------- Name, Date, Anatomical markers, projectionsOverall size and shape of the bonesConsistent with age , sex, uniformityThickness of cortexthick at mid-shaft, Is it visible all the way round.Density of the boneIncreased or decreased
21Bones Step or break in the Cortex Distortion of Trabecular pattern Distortion of bone shape
22Cartilage and Joint space: Intra-articular involvementLook for Joint Space narrowing or widening
28SummaryStart with an overall observation of your radiograph, pt. details, correct hand ?Think of the MOI, adult, childPitfalls- accessory ossiclesConsider soft tissue- occult fracturesOnce you spot a fracture, carry on to examine rest of the radiographDescribe what you seeUse measurements and line to help you