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Introduction to Medical Imaging Jeff Benseler, D.O.

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1 Introduction to Medical Imaging Jeff Benseler, D.O.

2 Objectives How do x-rays create an image of internal body structures? How do x-rays create an image of internal body structures? What are the 5 basic radiographic densities? What are the 5 basic radiographic densities? Try your hand at interpreting several medical imaging cases. Try your hand at interpreting several medical imaging cases.

3 List of diagnostic imaging studies Plain x-rays Plain x-rays CT scan CT scan MRI MRI Nuclear imaging/PET Nuclear imaging/PET Ultrasound Ultrasound Mammography Mammography Angiography Angiography Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopy Which of these modalities use ionizing radiation?

4 What are x-rays? No mass No mass No charge No charge Energy Energy What is your diagnosis?

5 Basic x-ray physics X-rays: a form of electromagnetic energy X-rays: a form of electromagnetic energy Travel at the speed of light Travel at the speed of light Electromagnetic spectrum Electromagnetic spectrum Gamma RaysX-rays Gamma RaysX-rays Visible lightInfrared light Visible lightInfrared light MicrowavesRadar MicrowavesRadar Radio waves Radio waves

6 Three things can happen X-rays can: X-rays can: Pass all the way through the body Pass all the way through the body Be deflected or scattered Be deflected or scattered Be absorbed Be absorbed Where on this image have x-rays passed through the body to the greatest degree?

7 X-rays Passing Through Tissue Depends on the energy of the x-ray and the atomic number of the tissue Depends on the energy of the x-ray and the atomic number of the tissue Higher energy x-ray - more likely to pass through Higher energy x-ray - more likely to pass through Higher atomic number - more likely to absorb the x-ray Higher atomic number - more likely to absorb the x-ray Diagnosis?

8 How do x-rays passing through the body create an image? X-rays that pass through the body to the film render the film dark (black) X-rays that pass through the body to the film render the film dark (black) X-rays that are totally blocked do not reach the film and render the film light (white) X-rays that are totally blocked do not reach the film and render the film light (white) Air = low atomic # = x-rays get through = image is dark Air = low atomic # = x-rays get through = image is dark Metal = high atomic # = x-rays blocked = image is light (white) Metal = high atomic # = x-rays blocked = image is light (white)

9 5 Basic Radiographic Densities Air Air Fat Fat Soft tissue/fluid Soft tissue/fluid Mineral Mineral Metal Metal Name these radiographic densities.

10 History: “I think my dog swallowed a rock” Diagnosis: “Yes, he did.”

11 Optimal Viewing Dedicated light source Dedicated light source Darkened environment (like a movie theater) Darkened environment (like a movie theater) Limit distraction Limit distraction

12 X-ray viewing station

13 Diagnosis?

14

15 A broken central venous catheter has migrated into the right lower lobe pulmonary artery

16 Can you recognize shapes and density?

17 Find the pathology What clues do you have?

18 Medical Imaging Primary purpose is to identify pathologic conditions. Primary purpose is to identify pathologic conditions. Requires recognition of normal anatomy. Requires recognition of normal anatomy.

19 History: 11 y/o twisting injury of the foot

20

21 Please name these bones Word bank: Cuboid Navicular Medial cuneiform Os naviculare

22 Proximal Distal Word bank: epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis, cortex, medullary cavity Naming the parts of a long bone

23 Summary: How do x-rays create an image of internal body structures? X-rays pass through the body to varying degrees X-rays pass through the body to varying degrees Higher atomic number structures block x-rays better, example bone. Higher atomic number structures block x-rays better, example bone. Lower atomic number structures allow x-rays to pass through, example: air in the lungs. Lower atomic number structures allow x-rays to pass through, example: air in the lungs. Question: If x-rays were blocked to the same degree by all body structures, could we see the internal parts of the body?

24 What are the 5 basic radiographic densities from black to bright white? Air Air Fat Fat Soft tissue/fluid Soft tissue/fluid Bone/mineral Bone/mineral Metal Metal

25 Ways to improve your radiology skills The Radiology Handbook The Radiology Handbook Learningradioilogy.com Learningradioilogy.com Auntminnie.com Auntminnie.com Web searches with key words “medical imaging” Web searches with key words “medical imaging” Surf the websites of medical schools Surf the websites of medical schools

26 What density are the lungs? Why? The list: air, fat, soft tissue, mineral and metal

27 CT scan of the abdomen X-rays used skin What density is this? air

28 DiDi Diagnosis?

29 Radiographic Analysis Any structure, normal or pathologic, should be analyzed for: Any structure, normal or pathologic, should be analyzed for:  Size  Shape and contour  Position  Density (You must know the 5 basic densities)

30 The anatomical position right left

31 Absorbed Passed through

32 Medullary bone Soft tissue Metal Note: Right-left marker Technologist’s initials

33 Name these densities

34 What density is this?

35 Summary questions What 3 things when an x-ray encounters the body? What 3 things when an x-ray encounters the body? How is it possible to see the heart on an x-ray? How is it possible to see the heart on an x-ray? What are the 5 basic radiographic densities? What are the 5 basic radiographic densities? What three things can you do to protect yourself from radiation? What three things can you do to protect yourself from radiation?

36 Questions for me?


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