Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 Living in North Africa, Southwest Asia, Central Asia Today."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 19 Living in North Africa, Southwest Asia, Central Asia Today
Chapter 19:1 Objectives 1. Discuss how physical geography affects farming and fishing in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia. 2. List the region’s important industries. 3. Explain how improvements in transportation and communications are changing life in the region.
Drawing from Experience Would you say that your lifestyle depends on the use of oil and oil products? Why or why not? Most of the world’s oil is found in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia. This section focuses on the economic activities, transportation, communications, and interdependence of the region.
Introduction North Africa, Southwest Asia, Central Asia hold great oil reserves. The oil industry is important in the region’s economy. The regions improved transportation and communications link it with the world. What industry is important in the region?
Meeting Food Needs The challenge is producing food for a rapidly growing population. Poor soil and unreliable rain produce small amounts of food. Rich oil-producing countries can import food while, other countries like Afghanistan must grow their own. Sometimes irrigation can be used.
Not much land is suitable for farming but, a large part of the population is engaged in agriculture. Citrus fruits, grapes and olives are major crops in the Mediterranean climates. Grains, cotton and livestock grow on farms in Central Asia. Fish are an important food source in coastal areas of the region.
Industrial Growth The region has about 70% of the world’s oil supply and 33% of the world’s natural gas reserves. Petroleum and oil products are the main export commodities, or economic goods in the region.
Other industries use petrochemicals – products made from petroleum or natural gas – to make fertilizers, medicines, plastics, and paints. Copper and coal are mined in Central Asia. In North Africa, Morocco is the world’s largest exporter of phosphate used in agricultural fertilizers.
Two Major Service Industries financial tourism Banking, real estate, and insurance account for most of Bahrain’s gross domestic produce (GDP). GDP is the value of goods and services produced in a country in a year.
Tourism is popular in North Africa and Southwest Asia because of their historical importance. Millions of visitors tour religious sites each year. Christians and Jews tour Israel, Jordan and other countries in the region. Muslims make a hajj, or yearly pilgrimage, to Makkah (Mecca).
AIRLINES connect countries within the region and with the rest of the world. WATERWAYS and ports on the Black and Mediterranean Seas allow ships to load and unload cargo. Channels such as the Strait of Hormuz are used by oil tankers to transport oil from the region.
Transportation ROAD systems in Iran, Turkey and Egypt connect major cities with oil fields and seaports. RAILROADS connect cities with rural areas. Mass transit systems have been built in urban areas to ease traffic jams.
The Suez Canal, a major human-made waterway lying between the Sinai Peninsula and the rest of Egypt, enables ships to pass from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. PIPELINES transport oil and natural gas overland to ports on the Mediterranean and Red Seas and the Persian Gulf.
Communications a. Television & radio b. satellite technology c. telephone d. computer and internet e. telecommunications cable was laid along the Silk Road. This cable provides 20 countries with communications services.
Interdependence Interdependence has increased as the more developed countries help the less developed.
OPEC Eight of the region’s countries: Algeria Libya Iran Iraq Kuwait Saudi Arabia and UAE (United Arab Emirates)
belong to the 11 member OPEC organization, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Because other countries depend heavily on the region’s oil, OPEC countries have considerable influence in the world.
Embargo Sometimes OPEC places an embargo, or restriction, on oil shipped to industrialized countries, causing oil prices to rise. In 1999 OPEC forced oil prices to rise by decreasing oil production. (supply & demand)
Key Points Although North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia have limited arable land, a relatively large percentage of the region’s people work in agriculture. The oil-producing countries in the region have experienced greater economic growth than other countries in the region.
Expanded and more advanced transportation and communications systems are helping connect the region’s urban and economic centers with one another and with the world. Interdependence is increasing among the countries of the region, especially in controlling oil production and prices.
Chapter 19:2 Objectives 1. Describe how the peoples in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia have dealt with scarce water resources. 2. Discuss the causes and effects of environmental problems in the region.
Drawing From Experience Is freshwater in your area scarce? Why or why not? In the last section, you read about economic activity in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia. This section focuses on the environmental challenges facing the region.
Introduction Human actions in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia threaten the environment. These actions include oil spills, urbanization, and overuse of water supplies.
The Need for Water Freshwater is scarce in the region. About 97% of the world’s water is saltwater. 2% of the earth’s freshwater is frozen. That leaves 1% of the freshwater available for human use. This region gets its water from rivers, oases and underground aquifers.
Desalination a way to remove salt from seawater and make it fresh Many countries depend on desalination for their freshwater supply. It’s very expensive.
Libya’s Great Man-Made Lake While drilling for oil they discovered water! This underground aquifer was huge. Libya created a lake with the water that is being pulled out. Some scientists are afraid these pipelines will drain the aquifer. Some are afraid that pumping water from the aquifers will draw in saltwater from the sea and ruin the freshwater.
Question What are some solutions to the freshwater scarcity in the region?
Environmental Concerns Environmental concerns have grown in the region in recent decades because of new technologies and destructive wars.
Aswan High Dam in Egypt In 1970 the Aswan High Dam was completed. It controls the Nile River’s flood, irrigates 3 million acres of land and supplies almost 50% of Egypt’s electrical power. The dam has also created an artificial lake to help the fishing industry.
However, because of the dam the river no longer deposits fertile soil along the riverbanks. Instead, the dam traps the soil. To grow crops, farmers must now use expensive fertilizers. Parasite-related diseases have increased near the dam.
Persian Gulf War (1990) The war had disastrous effects on the environment. Iraqi troops set fire to oil wells, causing smoke to pollute the area. The effects of the oil fires threatened millions of birds. They also dumped millions of gallons of oil into the Persia Gulf. This killed fish and other marine life.
Old Soviet Era Problems Central Asia The Soviet regime polluted these countries. They tested nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in Kazakhstan. Severe radiation leaks occurred. Heavy industry in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan polluted the air. Infant mortality has increased.
The Caspian Sea face severe pollution problems Pollution and overfishing in the Caspian Sea are killing off sturgeon, an important export in this region.
The Aral Sea severe water level drop water has been drawn away from the rivers that feed the Aral for irrigation fishing has been almost destroyed However, they are working hard to restore the Aral.
Sec. 2 Key Points Countries in the region have modified their environments to meet people’s needs for water for drinking and irrigation. New technologies and destructive wars have subjected the region’s environment to stress. People are working to revive areas damaged by past events.
Question What environmental problems does this region face today?