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The Civil War Why Fought? How Fought? Results or Consequences? Impact on the Homefront?

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Why Fought? How Fought? Results or Consequences? Impact on the Homefront?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War Why Fought? How Fought? Results or Consequences? Impact on the Homefront?

2 I. Formation of the Confederacy Secession of the Deep South New Confederate government Confederate Constitution (Feb., 1861) A Conservative Revolution

3 II. The Question of War

4 A. Compromise Fails Crittenden Compromise Lincoln’s Response Willard Hotel Peace Conference (Feb., 1861) Proposed 13 th Amendment to the Constitution

5 B. Firing on Fort Sumter Lincoln’s Inauguration Challenges facing the new President Four southern forts still in Union hands Shelling of Sumter Lincoln calls for 90- day enlistments Upper South secedes

6 C. Border State Loyalty? Kentucky Maryland Missouri Delaware

7 III. Assessing the Two Contenders Northern Advantages? --industrial might --population size --railroad mileage --better navy Southern Advantages? --familiar ground --stronger motivation --defensive tactics --better military leadership at first

8 IV. Northern Military Strategy Direct Strike at Richmond --Manassas, Peninsula Campaign, Cold Harbor “Anaconda Plan” Two-Front war to put both strategies into action

9 V. Mobilizing the Home Fronts Volunteers at first—a draft later Reliance on private industry Feeding the troops on both sides Attempts to pay for the war: North and South Southern railroad difficulties

10 V. Mobilizing the Home Front (cont) Early problems with discipline of troops A “rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight” The problem of local regiments War disrupted the lives of most civilians

11 VI. Analysis of Presidents Some doubt about Lincoln’s leadership abilities Reasons for Lincoln’s effectiveness Lincoln allowed dissent Davis’ liabilities as a leader

12 VII. Life in the Civil War Army

13 A. A Soldier’s Experience Life of tedium Poor medical conditions Food complaints Southern veterans make up for fewer numbers “Seeing the Elephant”

14 A. A Soldier’s Experience (cont.) A “Brothers War” Early problems with fraternization between the two armies Constant battle with lice Importance of letter writing Premonitions of death

15 B. The Changing Face of Battle Early Union naval victories Lincoln’s Early Search for a General who can produce victories Turning Point Victories in 1863 Grant’s Victory at Chattanooga

16 B. Changing Face of Battle (cont.) Sherman’s March on Atlanta and then his March to the Sea The early face of battle: First Manassas (Bull Run)—July, “The Great Skedaddle”

17 B. Changing Face of Battle (cont.) Changes in Weaponry Battles late in the War: Cold Harbor—June, 1864 Grant’s Strategy in “The Butcher” Changing Notion of Courage

18 VIII. Foreign Diplomacy Southerners employ a voluntary embargo on cotton Europeans waiting on a crucial southern victory Europeans fear war with the U.S. and need northern wheat French invasion of Mexico in 1863

19 IX. The African-American War Experience Timing of the Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln’s justification of emancipation Slavery was already falling apart in the south Running away to Union lines Word reaches southern slaves of emancipation

20 IX. African-American War Experience (cont.) 54 th Massachusetts Regiment --Robert Gould Shaw --Assault on Fort Wagner Pay and activities of the Black soldiers Dangers facing Black soldiers --Battle of the Crater outside of Petersburg, Va.

21 IX. African-American Experience (cont.) Emancipation Proclamation and using northern Black soldiers turned the war into a racial revolution Northern racism declines Southern organization of Black troops

22 X. War as Social Disorder Civil War ruined southern economy and society based on the institution of slavery Guerilla warfare in the south Southern bread riots in the spring of 1863 New York City Draft Riot of July, 1863

23 XI. Election of 1864 and Final Days of the War The Election of 1864 Grant’s Siege of Petersburg Importance of Sherman’s Capture of Atlanta The end at Appomattox Court House

24 XI. Final Days of the War (cont.) Lincoln’s Assassination at Fords Theater in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865 Surrender of Fort Sumter to the U.S. on the same day First occupation troops to Charleston, S.C. in February of 1865 were Black troops

25 XII. Effects of the War Temporary gain for women --U.S. Sanitary Commission --Nurses like Clara Barton Freedom for Blacks, but still a long way to go Decrease in Nativism States Rights was dead— Federal Authority expanded Northern “organizational revolution”


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