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Crisis and Conflict Chapter 7: War in the Asia-Pacific Region An Enquiry Approach to Modern World History Secondary 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Crisis and Conflict Chapter 7: War in the Asia-Pacific Region An Enquiry Approach to Modern World History Secondary 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crisis and Conflict Chapter 7: War in the Asia-Pacific Region An Enquiry Approach to Modern World History Secondary 3

2 2 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Why was peace in the Asia-Pacific region threatened? Why did World War II break out in the Asia-Pacific region? The reasons that made war in the Asia-Pacific likely. The reasons that caused the war to start in the Asia-Pacific region. Could war in the Asia-Pacific region have been avoided?

3 3 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 In a Nutshell  By 1930s, Japan was actively pursuing an expansionist policy. The reasons it gave were lack of land for its growing population and a lack of resources.  In 1931, Japanese troops moved into Manchuria.  In 1937, Japan moved further into China starting what was known as the Sino-Japanese War.  To finance its war efforts in China, Japan turned to Southeast Asia for resources.  That however brought Japan into conflict with the USA. The US Pacific fleet was stationed at Pearl Harbour, Hawaii.  To prevent the USA from hindering Japan’s campaign in Southeast Asia, Japan bombed Pearl Harbour on 2 December This sparked off the war in the Asia-Pacific.

4 4 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan’s foreign policy Japan’s foreign policy aims between aims between 1931 and and 1941 Japan’s military Japan’s military aggression Poor relations Poor relations between Japan between Japan and the West and the West The League The League of Nations of Nations The military started The military started acting without acting without government permission Why was peace in the Asia-Pacific region threatened?

5 5 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006  Japan was the leading power in Asia.  It wanted to expand into areas that belonged to Russia and China to build up its own empire.  The Navy, like the Army, called for expansion into British Malaya, French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies.  By the 1930s, Japan had expanded to include Formosa, Korea, Manchuria and the Pacific Isles. To build an empire in the Asia-Pacific region

6 6 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006  Japan felt that Asia should be freed from Western control.  As Japan was the strongest military power in Asia, the Japanese felt they would have to lead the fight to end Western imperialism. The Japanese took it upon themselves to be the leaders of Asia.  This made war in the Asia-Pacific likely because Japan would have to wage war against colonial powers to create a ‘Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere’. To free Asians from Western control

7 7 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 What was the ‘Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere?  This included countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, French Indochina, the Dutch East Indies, China and India.  Japan wanted these countries to be part of its empire.  These countries had oil, tin and rubber which were important resources for Japan to be self-sufficient.  These countries would also serve as markets for Japanese goods.  Japan used the term ‘Co-Prosperity’, to get Asians to believe that all the countries in the sphere would benefit economically through this arrangement.

8 8 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 To find room for Japan’s growing population  Japan’s population grew from 30 million in 1870 to 70 million by  Rapid increase in population created the problem of food shortage. Hence Japan had to import food.  The growing population also needed space.  Japan is a mountainous country and hence lacked living space for the increase in population.  The military proposed overseas expansion promising that it will provide more land for housing and to grow crops.

9 9 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 To control resources  The Great Depression affected Japan’s economy badly.  Its industries needed cheap suppliers of natural resources and markets to sell their goods.  Furthermore, Japan could not sell its goods to other countries because of protectionism.  Japan’s leaders looked to Manchuria as a solution for the country’s economic problems.

10 10 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006  What Manchuria could provide: cheap manpower cheap manpower raw materials like coal, timber, iron, raw materials like coal, timber, iron, soya beans, grain and gold soya beans, grain and gold an overseas market for Japanese goods an overseas market for Japanese goods To control resources

11 11 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan’s foreign policy aims between 1931 and 1941 To build an empire To find room for growing population To control resources To free Asians from Western control To create a ‘Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere’ Ba ck Ba ck

12 12 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Growing influence in Manchuria and mainland China  Japan’s influence in Manchuria began with the control of Port Arthur after it defeated Russia in 1905 in the Russo- Japanese War.  Japan also acquired the South Manchurian Railway from the Russians and had special economic privileges in the region.  By 1919, Japan had gained control over the German colony in Liaodong Peninsula.  Japan’s presence in China proved to be uneasy for the Allied Powers.

13 13 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Strength of Japan’s Army in Manchuria YearManpower Infantry Divisions AircraftTanks , , , , , ,

14 14 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan’s territorial gains in China 1905 Port Arthur South Manchurian Railway 1919 Liaodong Peninsula Ba ck Ba ck

15 15 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 The Mukden Incident  In 1928, some officers from the Japanese Army bombed a train, which was on its way to Mukden, killing the Manchurian warlord, Zhang Zuo-Lin.  They had hoped that his death would pave the way for the government in Tokyo to take control of Manchuria.  Although the government made no move to take over Manchuria, the independent actions of the Army had long-term consequences.

16 16 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 The Mukden Incident  This incident proved that the armed forces in Japan had enough influence to be able to carry out invasions without permission from the central government.  It had the unintended effect of worsening Japan’s position in Manchuria.  Zhang’s son, Zhang Xue-liang who took over control of his father’s army was strongly against Japan’s ambitions in Manchuria.  In December 1928, he even forged an alliance with Chiang Kai-Shek against the Japanese.

17 17 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006  As a result of Zhang Xue-liang’s actions, the Japanese army leaders felt the need to seize control of Manchuria.  On 18 September 1931, a train carrying Japanese passengers outside Mukden, exploded.  Blaming it on the Chinese, Japanese soldiers occupied South Manchuria.  Six months later, the government in Tokyo recognised that the Japanese Army had set up a new state called Manchukuo installing the last Manchu emperor of the Qing Dynasty, Pu-Yi as the head of the new state.  Although PM Inukai criticised the Army, he was unable to change the situation. The Mukden Incident

18 18 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Who or What should be blamed for the Marco Polo Bridge Incident?  On 7 July 1937, a full-scale war broke out between China and Japan.  It started at the Marco Polo Bridge (just north of Beijing) when a Japanese soldier went missing during a patrol and the Japanese Army demanded to search the Chinese section.  When the Chinese refused, both sides opened fire.

19 19 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Possible factors that caused the Marco Polo Bridge Incident The Japanese military By 1936, the Japanese Army felt that China had not defended Northern China strongly. The Japanese thus had not expected the Chinese to fight over the Incident. The international situation Japan feared a war on two fronts with China and the USSR. However, with the rise of German threat, Japan felt it was the right time to concentrate its resources on defeating China quickly. The Japanese zaibatsus The zaibatsus were also guilty of war mongering.They saw war with China as a chance to gain China’s markets, industries and natural resources. Japanese political control of the Japanese Army was weak Furthermore, the Tokyo government considered withdrawal as humiliating. It also feared political instability in Japan if it did not support the Army.

20 20 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japanese military expansion in the Pacific Japan invaded Korea. It became a Japanese colony Japan gained control of the Liaodong Peninsula as a reward for supporting Britain and France in World War I Japan invaded China, starting The First Sino-Japanese War. It took over Manchuria The Chinese Northern Province of Jehol was invaded and the Hopei region was demilitarised Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Second Sino-Japanese War started Most of Northeast and Eastern China under Japanese control Japan attacked US naval base at Pearl Harbour. Ba ck Ba ck

21 21 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 The League was too weak to stop Japan’s invasion of Manchuria League’s slow response to the crisis Sep 1931: Japan invaded Manchuria Dec 1931: League appointed the Lytton Commission to investigate Jan-Oct 1932: Investigation continued Oct 1932: Report of investigation given to League The Great Depression weakened the economies of the leading members and so they were unwilling to send troops to China. Members were weak Britain and France were more concerned with rebuilding their economies Japan ignored recommendations of report Withdrew from League after it was criticised League did nothing and Manchuria was occupied Result?

22 22 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 The League was too weak to stop Japan’s invasion of Manchuria  The Lytton Commission criticised Japan’s annexation of Manchuria.  Manchukuo was declared a puppet state.  However it also recognised Japan’s heavy investments in the region.  It recommended that Manchuria remain part of China but to be allowed to have its own government.  Japan would be allowed to keep its special economic privileges and investments there.  Japan rejected the proposal, withdrew from the League and its troops remained in Manchuria.  The failure of the League in taking no other action convinced Japanese military leaders that the Western powers were too weak to prevent their expansion. Ba ck Ba ck

23 23 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Western bias made Japan feel more hostile toward the West  Japan’s relations with the USA were poor because many Japanese felt that the West was biased against Japan.  The terms of the Washington Naval Conference contributed partly to this.  Japanese nationalists felt that the West wanted to prevent Japan from expanding into the Asia-Pacific region.  On December 1934, Japan announced it would no longer follow the terms of the Treaty.  This made war likely because this gave Japan the leeway to increase the size of its armed forces, in turn threatening the peace in the Asia-Pacific region. Ba ck Ba ck

24 24 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan’s war against China Why did World War II break out in the Asia-Pacific region? The international situation Worsening relations between the USA and Japan Hideki Tojo became Prime Minister

25 25 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan’s war against China  The Marco Polo Bridge Incident marked the start of a full- scale war with China.  Japan had expected the war to end quickly but it dragged on for years.  The war used up nearly all of Japan’s resources.  Furthermore, China did not have enough raw materials to supply Japan’s needs.  Japan also found it difficult to buy raw materials from abroad because of war in Europe.  This meant that if Japan had to continue its war in China, it would have to conquer British Malaya for its rubber and tin and occupy the Dutch East Indies for its oil. Ba ck Ba ck

26 26 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan’s Neutrality Agreement with the Soviet Union  Japan was concerned about a war two fronts as it had clashed with the Russians along the Russo-Japanese border between 1938 and  In April 1941, Japan signed a neutrality agreement with the USSR.  This made war against the USSR less likely in  The threat of a war on two fronts became even more unlikely when Germany invaded the USSR in June 1941 as the Russians would be too busy fighting the Germans to attack Japan.  This left Japan free to attack Southeast Asia and Pearl Harbour.

27 27 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Soviet and Japanese clashes along the Russo-Japanese border Changkufeng Nomonhan

28 28 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 War in Europe left European colonies in Asia undefended  The Western powers were fighting for survival in Europe against Germany.  The situation in Europe left the Southeast Asian colonies of the Western powers vulnerable.  These colonies included: British Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore) British Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore) French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) The Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) The Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) Ba ck Ba ck

29 29 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan saw the USA as a threat to its plans to build an empire  Throughout the 1930s, Japan thought that the USA was trying to stop Japan’s plan to control the Asia-Pacific region.  Relations between the two countries became increasingly hostile.  The USA had a large Pacific fleet.  It was able to protect territories and trading ships using the fleet.

30 30 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan saw the USA as a threat to its plans to build an empire  The Americans saw Japan’s aggression as a threat and hence increased the size of their navy at Pearl Harbour.  Some Japanese military leaders felt that Japan had to attack the US Pacific fleet in order to cripple the USA’s ability to fight a war in the Pacific.  This will enable Japan to gain time to build up its troops and protect the positions it had conquered in Southeast Asia.

31 31 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 US embargo on steel, scrap iron and oil  In 1941, the USA placed an embargo on Japan by prohibiting exports of steel, scrap iron and oil to Japan.  Japan considered the embargo as a threat to Japan’s survival in the war.  Japan was badly hit as it bought most of its oil and metal from the USA.  The USA would only sell oil to Japan if it agreed to leave China immediately.  Japan was thus left with the option of either to leave China or invade the Dutch East Indies and take the oil that can be found there.

32 32 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Breakdown of US-Japan talks in 1941  In 1941, Japan’s ambassador to the USA, Nomura Kichisaburo and US Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, held talks to improve relations between their countries.  US foreign policy was aimed at forcing Japan to withdraw from China.  On the other hand, Japan felt peace could only be achieved if China accepted Japanese occupation.  The two goals were too different to allow room for compromise.

33 33 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Based on the illustration, what were the causes of conflict between the USA and Japan? Steel, iron and oil embargoes: In response to Japan’s aggression and invasion of China, the USA placed an embargo on Japan by prohibiting exports of steel, scrap iron and oil to Japan.

34 34 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Hostility between Japan and the USA: As a result of the blockade by the USA, relations between Japan and the USA deteriorated further. The oil embargo left Japan with only two years’ supply of oil. Since no other country would sell oil to Japan, it had two choices — give in to US demands and remove Japanese forces from China in exchange for lifting the oil embargo; or take oil by invading the Dutch East Indies. Ba ck Ba ck

35 35 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Hideki Tojo became Prime Minister  In 1941, War Minister Tojo became Prime Minister.  He felt that war with the USA could not be avoided.  Japanese leaders who supported negotiations were gradually removed from the new government.  This made war likely because a general who supported an aggressive foreign policy was now in charge of the government. Ba ck Ba ck

36 36 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan orders the attack on Pearl Harbour  On 2 December 1941, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, commander of the Japanese fleet sent out a coded order to ‘ascend Mt Nikita 1298’.  This was a signal to bomb Pearl Harbour.  On Sunday 7 December 1941, the Japanese fleet attacked Pearl Harbour.  The war in the Asia-Pacific had begun.

37 37 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright Although Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbour on 7 December 1941 was a success with the sinking of three battleships and the destruction of 300 aircraft, US aircraft carriers and other battleships escaped the attack. In the end, Japan was defeated in the war. 2. Most of the Japanese Navy was destroyed after Japan lost major battles such as the Battle Of Midway. US planes and submarines attacked Japanese ships preventing vital supplies from reaching Japan. 3. US troops conducted ‘island hopping’ campaigns taking only the main islands as they had good harbours and airfields. This helped the USA to win control of the Pacific quickly. 4. On mainland Southeast Asia, British and Commonwealth forces fought the Japanese in Burma and India. US troops also fought their way across the Pacific from Australia to New Guinea and freed the Philippines. War in the Asia-Pacific 1942–1945 Ba ck Ba ck 5. In 1945, President Harry Truman wanting to avoid the invasion of Japan, ordered the use of the atomic bomb. Hiroshima was bombed on 6 August 1945 and Nagasaki, three days later. The Japanese emperor agreed to surrender, ending the Asia- Pacific War.

38 38 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Japan’sAggressive Foreign Policy Weak League of Nations Economic crisis Militarism Worsening international relations Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Rising tension contributedto failed to stop promoted an Contributedto contributed to led to aimed at creating Summary

39 39 Crisis and Conflict: War in the Asia-Pacific Region Copyright 2006 Causes of WWII in the Asia-Pacific US-Japan relationship became worse in 1930s 1941 talks broke down Tojo became PM Economic situation War in China International situation USSR pact with Japan War in Europe


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