Presentation on theme: "Section 4 The War of 1812 War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812. NEXT."— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 4The War of 1812War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812.NEXT
2 The War of 1812 The War Hawks Demand War British and French Rivalries 4SECTIONThe War of 1812The War Hawks Demand WarBritish and French RivalriesBritish blockade French ports to prevent ships from enteringBritain, France (1000, 500) seize American ships, confiscate cargoesGrievances Against Britain• Impressment—seizing Americans, drafting them into British navy• Federalist party (pro-Brit) shrinks in popularity• Chesapeake incident further angers Americans• Jefferson convinces Congress to declare embargo, or ban on exports• Embargo, meant to hurt Europe, also hurts U.S.- Congress lifts it, except with Britain, FranceContinued . . .NEXT
3 The Chesapeake incident The actual number of Americans pressed into service in the Royal Navy is unknown, but it is estimated that a thousand American seamen per year were illegally pressed into British service. The British removed four “deserters” from the Chesapeake’s crew. Only one of them was British – the rest were American seamen who had been impressed into British naval service. The Leopard then sailed to England so that the men could be tried.
4 Tecumseh’s Confederacy 4SECTIONcontinued The War Hawks Demand WarTecumseh’s Confederacy• William Henry Harrison (Gov. of Indiana territory) makes land deal with Native American chiefs• Shawnee chief Tecumseh tries to form Native American confederacy:- tells people to return to traditional beliefs, practices- presses Harrison to leave land, negotiates British help; many tribes don’t joinThe War Hawks• Harrison is hero of Battle of Tippecanoe but suffers heavy losses• Broke Tecumseh’s plans for unity• War hawks—want war with Britain because natives used British arms--Henry Clay of Kentucky leads the War HawksNEXT
5 The War Brings Mixed Results 4SECTIONThe War Brings Mixed ResultsAmericans’ AdvantagesCanadian population still strongly FrenchBritish have to send troop reinforcements 3000 miles across the stormy AtlanticBritish worn out from recent wars with France and SpainAmerican ships strongest in the world, manned by skilled sailors--Most famous ship, the Constitution, named because Paul Revere did the metalworkAmerican DisadvantagesNortheast against the war, contributes little and even helps the British at timesOld and incompetent war generalsContinued . . .NEXT
6 The War Brings Mixed Results 4SECTIONThe War Brings Mixed ResultsThe War in CanadaMadison (wins landslide presidential election of Dem-Rep.) chooses war, thinks Britain is crippling U.S. trade, economyU.S. army unprepared; early British victories in Detroit, MontrealOliver Hazard Perry defeats British on Lake Erie; U.S. wins battles on Atlantic OceanNative Americans fight on both sides; Tecumseh killed in battleBritish blockade U.S. ports along east coastElection of 1812Madison defeats Federalist, anti-war candidate DeWitt Clinton (mayor of NY)Sectional results: Madison wins South and westContinued . . .NEXT
7 British Burn the White House 4SECTIONcontinued The War Brings Mixed ResultsBritish Burn the White HouseBy 1814, British raid, burn towns along Atlantic coastBritish burn Washington D.C.The Battle of New Orleans• General Andrew Jackson fights Native Americans, gains national fame• Jackson defeats Native Americans at Battle of Horseshoe Bend- destroys military power of Native Americans in South• In 1815, defeats superior British force at Battle of New Orleans (the Yorktown of War of 1812)Continued . . .NEXT
8 British burn Washington D.C. and the White House The individual states, while eager to defend themselves, felt no obligation to defend D.C. This was the only time in history that D.C. was occupied. President Madison and the rest of the government was forced to flee to Virginia. The British set fire to the Capitol building and other public buildings. The Executive Mansion was painted white to hide some of the effects of the fire and it has since been known as the White House.
9 4SECTIONcontinued The War Brings Mixed ResultsThe Treaty of Ghent• Treaty of Ghent, peace agreement signed Christmas 1814• Declares armistice or end to fighting; does not resolve all issues• 1815, commercial treaty reopens trade between Britain and U.S.• 1817, Rush-Bagot agreement limits war ships on Great Lakes• 1818, northern boundary of Louisiana Territory set at 49th parallel• Agree to jointly occupy Oregon Territory for 10 yearsNEXT
10 Battle of Fort McHenryDuring a night-long bombardment of Fort McHenry, an American lawyer was on one of the ships trying to negotiate the release of an aged physician, a friend of his who was captured in Washington. He spent an anxious night wondering if Fort McHenry would be forced to surrender. When the dawn was breaking, the old doctor kept asking “Is the flag still there?”. Inspired Key wrote a poem “The Defense of Fort McHenry”. It was noted that the words could be made to fit an old drinking song called “To Anacreon in Heaven”, and the poem sung in this fashion became the “Star Spangled Banner”