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The Ottoman Empire Ruled the Middle East for over four centuries Leaders were Muslims kings (known as Sultans) The main faith they believed in: Islam.

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Presentation on theme: "The Ottoman Empire Ruled the Middle East for over four centuries Leaders were Muslims kings (known as Sultans) The main faith they believed in: Islam."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Ottoman Empire Ruled the Middle East for over four centuries Leaders were Muslims kings (known as Sultans) The main faith they believed in: Islam o Jihad- a holy war Muslims fight to please Allah Goal: Spread Islam throughout many nations by extending empire Capital: Constantinople (Istanbul), Mainland: Turkey Cruel rulers- punished Middle Eastern citizens harshly This is a picture of a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. This is a picture of the Ottoman Empire’s flag. Actually, this is what Turkey’s flag looks like today.

3 The Ottoman Empire continued… Possessed the power of Islam- big Islamic empire Allies during WWI-- Austria-Hungary and Germany Fighting against Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and USA A lot diversity As empire expanded--- tough ruling over a large area of land (Northern Africa, Southeastern Europe, and Middle East) Very strong/threat to the Allies (had over 600,000 troops) Tried attacking the Suez Canal but failed many times! (Sinai Peninsula) Lost territory from Russia Suez Canal This is a picture of an aerial view of the Suez Canal.

4 This flag here represents the Arab nations that took part in the Great Arab Revolt.


6 The Balfour Declaration 1917 Between the British and the Israelis Purpose: “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” Israel was created in 1948 Land would be carved out if Arab rights weren’t affected Jewish people had restrictions: o Were not allowed to own or live outside of their turf  Area: west of Jordan River; not allowed to go east of it This is a picture of the Balfour Declaration.


8 Iraq Created by the British and was their mandate o Brought Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul together (Ottoman territories) At first- no Iraqi people, no culture, nothing Have been ruled by kings and dictators o First leader- Feisal in 1921 (British put him in power) o His govt. soon was overthrown; new ruler- Saddam Hussein A lot of violence there (no peace)- continues today This picture shows what the country Iraq looks like today.

9 Palestine, Jordan, and Israel This picture shows a map of Israel, Jordan and Palestine..

10 Syria and Lebanon Both were controlled by the French Fought the French for independence Wars between Christians and Muslims Syria got its independence in 1920 Lebanon in 1943 Syria were first ruled by the Husseins and Ibn Saud This is a picture of Ibn Saud (1888- 1953), who also ruled Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia didn’t really have any problems during the time after World War One. They were basically a peaceful country.

11 Egypt Ruled by the British for over 40 years Fought the British many times for independence British offered independence in 1922; Egypt rejected that o British would still have some control (ex. resources) Waftist Party was against the British (created in 1919) Leader- Zaghoul, later came King Fuad I Anglo-Egyptian Agreement sent British away Present times: Egypt is an ally of Britain

12 Turkey- Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Leader after WWI Created the country of Turkey Led national movements (revolutions) for political changes Changed the ways of the former Ottoman Empire Government was a one party system Quote from Mansfield (172)- “Ataturk’s success in developing a strong national state… influenced Arab and Persian nationalists- but their different circumstances meant that Turkey was more an inspiration than example.” This is a picture of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. He was a very important man in Turkish history.

13 Turkey, the Arabs, and the Westerners Didn’t want to be ruled by the Allies o Strived towards independence (protests, movements) o Wanted to become a country and make its own decisions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Arabs didn’t like the Western ways (Britain and France mainly) o Example: the way they were being educated o Westerners depended on oil in the Middle East The British and French ignored Arab nations; didn’t give them independence right away This picture shows when certain countries gained independence. The Middle Eastern countries are towards the right side of the map.

14 Bibliography "Background of the Middle East Conflict, Part 1." Welcome to The Future of Freedom Foundation. Oct. 2003. Web. 5 Mar. 2011.. "BBC - History - World Wars: The Middle East during World War One." BBC - Homepage. Web. 26 Feb. 2011.. Brennan, Kristine. The First World War and the End of the Ottoman Order. Philadelphia: Mason Crest, 2007. Print. The Making of the Middle East. Chung, Belinda, Linda Lee, and Lydia Kang Majask. "Effects of World War One on the Middle East." Ibhistoryreview.wikispaces. Web. 11 Mar. 2011.. Davenport, John. A Brief Politcal and Geographic History of the Middle East. USA: Mitchell Lane, 2008. Print. Places in Time. "Global Connections. Home | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. 2002. Web. 7 Mar. 2011..

15 Bibliography "The Middle East and the West: WWI and Beyond : NPR." NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts : NPR. Web. 8 Mar. 2011.. "Military Campaigns, The Near East and the Colonies| The First World War One." Big Site of History (History of Civilization). Web. 9 Mar. 2011.. The article "The Middle East After World War One| The Non-Western World" is also from this website. URL: world Mojtabai, Farzin. "Effects of the Collapse of the Ottoman Empire on the Middle East." Associated Content from Yahoo! - 7 Mar. 2007. Web. 25 Feb. 2011.. Peters, Ralph. "Blood Borders - June 2006 - Armed Forces Journal - Military Strategy, Global Defense Strategy." ARMED FORCES JOURNAL. Web. 4 Mar. 2011..

16 Bibliography Roberts, Sam. "The New York Times Upfront | The News Magazine for High School." Teaching Resources, Children's Book Recommendations, and Student Activities | 1996-2011. Web. 25 Feb. 2011.. "War and Social Upheaval: World War I Other Campaigns Middle East." Historic Clothing: Expanded Site. 4 Nov. 2010. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.. THE END!!! Hope for peace in the Middle East!

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