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Wait, What Happened at the Border ? By, Josh Wallk Period. 8 Mrs. Granfield.

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Presentation on theme: "Wait, What Happened at the Border ? By, Josh Wallk Period. 8 Mrs. Granfield."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wait, What Happened at the Border ? By, Josh Wallk Period. 8 Mrs. Granfield

2 o Britain o France o Russia o U.S. o Germany o Austria o The Ottoman Empire V.S. 2 Ottoman coat of arms

3 o The Ottoman Empire was broken up into a number of new countries in the Middle East. o New nations were crossed over existing cultural, tribal, and religious boundaries. o The League of Nations was formed from the allies to oversee the Ottoman Empire. o Rulers were appointed by the League of Nations in each of the new nations. o Many of the Middles East nations had oil, which would be controlled by foreign nations. o The imperial order that held these countries together for so long was replaced by independent nations. 3 The Ottoman Empire at its Peak

4 o Turkey became an independent nation (forcing the Kurds and Assyrians into Iraq…resulting in conflict). o Iraq was formed as a new country (combining opposing factions from Sunnis, Shiites, & Kurds). o Jordan, Palestine, Jewish homeland, West Bank, and Gaza Strip were formed. o Syria came under French rule and Lebanon was carved out from Syria (which never sat well). o Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar also developed their own independency. o Britain, France, & Russia extended their rule over many of these new countries. 4 Middle East Maps Before & After WW1

5 o The allies wanted to carve up the Ottoman territories to prevent future wars. o Nations wanted to become independent in the early 20 th century. o The League of Nations wanted to oversee the former Ottoman Empire. o Europeans wanted to reduce Islam’s ability to control the region. o The British had promised Arabs independence. o Britain announced support for the Jewish people in Palestine. 5 Cartoon showing League of Nations

6 o Britain made a secret agreement with France to divide up the Ottoman territory between them. o The Europeans wanted to maintain and expand their colonies. o Europe & France wanted to get access to oil in the middle east. o Woodrow Wilson (U.S. President) wanted to help countries become more independent (14 Points). 6 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points

7 o Britain created Iraq (a new country) by putting together pieces from Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul. o The land east of the Jordan river was carved out for Palestine (which included Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and Gaza Strip). o Syria became a territory under France o France later carved out Lebanon from Syria. o Kuwait (originally part Basra) was later placed under the control of Britain 7 Post WW1 Map showing new countries

8 o The collapse of the imperial order led to turmoil, which continues even now. o The British had installed a king (an outsider) to oversee Iraq and maintain peace between the Shiites, Sunnis, and Kurds. o The creation of a Jewish home in Palestine was met with anger from Arab leaders. o Syria was opposed to the creation of Lebanon. o Middle East did not welcome Foreign powers opposing their will. o The “West” has become a symbol for the anger and conflict which continues to plague the Middle East. 8 Angry Palestinians

9 o Discovery of oil in the middle East led to exploitation by the foreign powers in the Middle East. o Religious and ethnic differences led to repeated conflicts within these new territories and between them. o Iraq’s king (installed by the British) was overthrown in 1958. o Jordan was granted independence in 1946. o Israel became an independent state in 1948, which led to numerous Arab and Israeli wars. o Lebanon gained independence in 1943 from Syria and conflicts between Christians and Muslims resulted in a 15 year civil war. Cartoon showing Israel at the center of conflict

10 o Possibly if the British and French had not created that secret agreement. o Some of the problems could have been avoided if the Europeans did not attempt to colonize these territories. o Britain’s support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine may not have been avoidable. o Yes, if the league of nations had not installed their own rulers throughout the Middle East. o Possibly if the league of nations had been more sensitive to the religious, ethnic, and tribal differences in the region. o Possibly not because they broke up an age old imperial order into new groups of people and territories. 10 Cartoon showing how the League of Nations was a failure

11 o Iraq was recently invaded by the United States and is still in transition to a new government. o The west bank, which is under Israeli control (as a result of the 1960 war with Egypt), is at the center of conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians. o Kuwait was liberated in 1961, invaded by Iraq in 1990, and liberated by the U.S. in 1991. o The oil rich Arab countries provide most of the oil imports for the U.S., Britain and France. o Syria and Lebanon continue to be at odds. o Lebanon continues to exist on the brink of civil war between the Sunnis and Shiites. 11 Chart showing Oil Reserves by Country

12 o Conquering nations need to be very careful about decisions they make when redrawing boundaries. o Western countries need to understand the history and cultures in the Middle East. o Allies in victory need to work together in an open way instead of following their own agendas. o The nations at war need to be careful about any commitments they make which could come back to haunt them after the war is over. o Conquering nations should resist the temptation to colonize and control other nations. o After a war, allies should focus on creating lasting peace. 12 WW1 Cemetery

13 1. "BBC - History - World Wars: The Middle East during World War One." BBC - Homepage. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.. 2. Roberts, Sam. "The New York Times Upfront | The News Magazine for High School." Teaching Resources, Children's Book Recommendations, and Student Activities | Web. 18 Mar. 2011.. 3. Maps of War ::: Visual History of War, Religion, and Government. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.. 13

14 4. Country Studies. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.. 5. Hickman, Kennedy. "World War 1 - World War 1 History Middle East." Military History - Warfare through the Ages - Battles and Conflicts - Weapons of War - Military Leaders in History. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.. 6. "Global Connections. Historic Political Borders of the Middle East | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.. 14

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