1 Elliptical, gapping, null spellout, silent AUX 3.3-103.3 Null AuxiliariesElliptical, gapping, null spellout, silent AUX
2 (15) He could have helped her, or [she have helped him] TPPRN T´she T AUXPcould AUX VPhave V PRNhelped him(18) Have-cliticisation blocked:*He could have … or she’ve helped him.
3 (19) Have-cliticisation Have can encliticise onto a word W endingin a vowel or diphthong provided thatW c-commands have andW is immediately adjacent to have
4 3.4 Null T(21) All finite clauses are TPs headed by an (overt or null) T constituent (23) TP (25) TP PRN T´ PRN T´ He T VP He T VP ? V N Do+Af3SgPr V N enjoys syntax does enjoy syntax enjoyed Af3SgPr enjoys syntax Affix Hopping (Af: Tense Affix) Chomsky (1995): All heads in a syntactic structure are required to play a role in determining the meaning of the overall structure. Cf. perfect have (AUX) vs. causative/experienced have (V) (31) a. They’ve seen a ghost (perfect have) b.*They’ve their car serviced regularly (causative have) c.*They’ve students walk out on them sometimes (experienced have)
5 Null T in infinitive clauses (33) a. I have never known [Tom criticise anyone] him => Tom has never been known [to criticise anyone] b. A reporter saw [Senator Sleaze leave Benny’s Bunny Bar] => He was seen [to leave B’s B B] (35) ECM verbs TP a. I expect [him to win] N T´ b. I judged [him to be lying] Tom T VP c. They reported [him to be missing] to V PRN d. I believe [him to be innocent] criticise anyone
6 3.6 Null C in finite clauses (44) We didn’t know [he had resigned] or [that he had been accused of corruption] (49) A: What were you going to ask me? B: a. If you feel like a Coke b. Do you feel like a Coke? c.*If do you feel like a Coke? (50) [I am feeling thirsty], but [should I save my last Coke till later]? (52) Case Condition A pronoun or noun expression is assigned case by the closest case- assigning head which c-commands it A finite C constituent (whether overt or null) assigns nominative case to the subject of its clause under c-command
7 3.7 Null C in infinite clauses (55) I want [Mary to come to Japan] and [for her to see my parents] (57) obl. for-deletion when immediately follows want a. *More than anything, she wanted for him to apologise b. More than anything, she wanted him to apologise c. She wanted more than anything for him to apologise d. *She wanted more than anything him to apologise (58) a. What she wanted was for him to apologise b.*What she wanted was him to apologise
8 3.8 Defective clauses ECM verbs (67) *We didn’t intend [you to hurt him] or[for him to hurt you](70) a. He is believed to hurt youb. You weren’t intended to hurt him(72) Impenetrability ConditionA constituent in the domain of (i.e. c-commanded by) a complementiser is impenetrable to (and so cannot be attracted by) a higher head c-commanding the complementiser(73)*[CP [C Ø] [TP You [Tweren’t] intended [CP [Cfor] [TP you [Tto] hurt anyone]]]]x(PIC)
9 3.9 Null determiners and quantifiers (81) a DP b DP c DPD N D N D Nwe linguists you linguists Ø linguists(82) a. Eggs and many dairy products cause cholesterolb. I’d like toast and some coffee please QPQ NØ eggstoast
10 Longobardi (2005) ‘Toward a Unified Grammar of Reference’ Italian bare arguments are in fact DPs with a null DDP D NP ∂ potatoes∂ : phonologically nullN-to-D raising: obligatory for PNs (proper nouns),impossible for BNs (bare nouns)
11 Determinerless arguments (1) PNs(proper names): (2) BNs(bare nouns): to denote a definite, specific entity mass or plural head nouns (Kripke 1980) Ho incontrato Maria/te a. Bevo sempre vino 'I met Maria/you.' 'I always drink wine.‘ b. Ho mangiato patate 'I ate potatoes.'