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C-command Day 8, Sept. 14, 2012 Introduction to Syntax ANTH 3590/7590 Harry Howard Tulane University.

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Presentation on theme: "C-command Day 8, Sept. 14, 2012 Introduction to Syntax ANTH 3590/7590 Harry Howard Tulane University."— Presentation transcript:

1 C-command Day 8, Sept. 14, 2012 Introduction to Syntax ANTH 3590/7590 Harry Howard Tulane University

2 C OURSE MANAGEMENT The website is finally back up, and all of the course material is available there. The grades have been uploaded to Blackboard’s grade book. Please check them! If there is a problem, bring your quiz to class to show me. 9/14/12 2 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

3 W HO IS MISSING ? 9/12/12 3 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

4 R EVIEW 9/14/12 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane 4

5 T HE TESTS 1. Co-ordination condition (30) Only constituents of the same type can be coordinated. 2. Proform/substitution condition (-) Only a string of words that is a constituent can be replaced with a proform. 3. Preposing condition (37) When material is preposed in order to highlight it, what is preposed is the smallest possible maximal projection containing the highlighted material. 9/14/12 5 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

6 O THER PRINCIPLES Economy condition (36) Syntactic structures should contain as few words as possible, and syntactic operations should affect as few words as possible. Functional head constraint (simplified) (39) The complement of a functional head cannot be moved without moving its head also. 9/14/12 6 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

7 D RAW TREES FOR EX /14/12 7 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

8 §2.6 Syntactic relations 9/14/12 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane 8

9 NEGATIVE POLARITY 1. No student has any idea how to solve this problem. 2. Mary has any idea how to solve this problem. 3. Few students have any idea how to solve this problem. 4. Five students have any idea how to solve this problem. 5. If you have any idea how to solve this problem, tell me. 6. When you have any idea how to solve this problem, tell me. 9/14/12 9 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane * * *

10 MORE TYPES Take a moment to think of other negative polarity items like any. ever, to dare, to need Take a moment to think of other negative polarity/affective environments like no, few & if. how often Positive polarity? John liked it somewhat. John didn't like it somewhat. I am well/fine. I am not well/fine. 9/14/12 10 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

11 WHERE CAN THE TRIGGER BE? 1. Few of my friends know any politicians. 2. The wives of few of my friends know any politicians. 3. The writer that few of my friends admire has any money. 4. Any politicians are known by few of my friends. 5. Few of my friends’ wives have any money. 9/14/12 11 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane * * *

12 C-COMMAND Polarity items need to be licensed by another constituent. This licensing is asymmetric. The branches in a tree represent containment. A constituent X c-commands its sister constituent Y and any constituent Z which is contained within Y. The polarity condition (49) A polarity item must be c-commanded by an affective (negative, interrogative, or conditional) constituent. 9/14/12 12 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

13 THE EXAMPLE OF EX /14/12 13 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane PP Nobody will become very fond of any politician PRN T V ADV ADJ P NP Adj’ AdjP VP T’T’ TP A constituent X c- commands its sister constituent Y and any constituent Z which is contained within Y.

14 §2.7 Binding 9/14/12 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane 14

15 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Data 1. My wife knows herself well. 2. The father of my wife knows herself well. 3. The writer that my wife admires knows herself well. 4. Herself is known well by my wife. 5. My wife’s father knows herself well. Binding condition A bound constituent must be c-commanded by an appropriate antecedent. 9/14/12 15 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

16 THE EXAMPLE OF EX , again 9/14/12 16 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane PP She will become very fond of herself PRN T V ADV ADJ P PRN Adj’ AdjP VP T’T’ TP A constituent X c- commands its sister constituent Y and any constituent Z which is contained within Y.

17 EX /14/12 17 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane

18 NEXT TIME Q2 §2.8 Bare phrase structure § Null subjects & null auxiliaries 9/14/12 ANTH3590/7590, Harry Howard, Tulane 18


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