Name School Language Levels 2014 World Cup Winner?
Which one of these pictures illustrates effective communication?
Note how all three individuals are “chill-axing”, thus lowering their affective filter. Our favorite definition of communication: a technique for expressing ideas effectively (as in speech)
“Performance-based standards necessitate the inclusion of a variety of assessment tasks that integrate skills and immerse students in scenarios resembling real life situations.” (http://www.sedl.org/loteced/PD_training.html)http://www.sedl.org/loteced/PD_training.html
Krashen (1981) “The goal of the classroom is not to produce native- speakers or even error-free second language performance..” “develop ‘intermediate’ second language competence,” “bring the student to…understand the language he hears and reads outside the class and thus improve on his own.” Interlanguage - Selinker (1972)
Are you comfortable sending your teenager on the road having only passed a paper and pencil driving test? Did your car mechanic take a paper and pencil test before working on your Volvo or does he/she actually work on cars? Does your doctor know about brain surgery or has he/she practiced brain surgery?
Conversational Day vs. Grammar Day Conversational day – implicit/learn by noticing Grammar day – explicit/ask specifically for that form Who won?
Pledge of Allegiance Rock-a-bye-baby Ring around the Rosey Sayings ◦ Six of one, half dozen of the other ◦ Early bird catches the worm ◦ Girl Scout pledge ◦ Miranda rights ◦ Brainstorm expressions without thought ◦ Can you see the disconnect? ◦ When we memorize in a rehearsed manner, we do not readily extract meaning and therefore cannot readily apply what they have memorized in other contexts.
Spoken or written language data that has been produced in the course of genuine communication, and not specifically written for purposes of language teaching. –Nunan (1999)
The four abilities: Speaking Writing Listening Reading *Integrate culture whenever possible/appropriate!!! Do not be the like Sra. Johnson! *Modifiable for the level you teach!
Meaningful Speaking Activities
Objective: Students will study, memorize, explain, listen, retell, and interpret visual/ audio cues in order to reproduce a visual that is in the hall. Materials: A picture prompt (to be hung in the hall); a line on the floor (can be made with tape); butcher paper and markers
See, tell, draw! Form groups of 5. person (A) goes outside to study a picture, painting, or drawing for x minutes person (B) stands at a line by the door and listens to person (A) when they return to the line Afterwards person (B) goes back to the rest of the group and describes the picture, painting, or drawing that person (A) described The group draws the image that person (B) describes Person (A) goes back outside to study it again and will come back in to describe it to a third person (C) again with more details. Person (C) describes the image to the rest of the group, and group members take turns meeting person (A) at the line.
Students form groups of 5-7. Each group works in a place of inspiration (away from other groups)and smiles in Spanish (or Arabic) at fellow group members. Envelopes are given to students that contain cards. Cards have names of famous dead people on them. Students keep envelopes face down except to show group members-objective is to guess which name is on the card through information that peers supply in the target language. Each person will take his/ her turn asking QUs
This activity can vary depending upon level/ grammatical topic I chose to use dead people because it easily lent itself to the preterite tense, which we were using at the time in class (we spent the whole day on dead people, i.e. writing an auto-obituary, etc.), but one could easily use a famous person who is currently alive or base the people on the topic.
¿Dónde trabajé durante mi vida? (Where did I work during my life) ¿Con quién me casé? (Who did I marry?) ¿Qué logré? (What did I achieve?) ¿Cuándo viví/ Cuándo me morí? (When did I live and die?)
Partner everyone up A/B Send B’s outside Tell Group A they are asking their B partner to the prom and they are not allowed to take ‘no’ for an answer. Tell Group B (out in hallway) they are ‘repulsed’ by person A, will NOT go to prom with them but they must invent polite excuses as to why they cannot go.
When was the last time you memorized the conversation that you were about to have with your brother before you called him? Think critically about former project presentations or speaking dialogues to ensure that students are not memorizing what they are going to say! Give students presentation guidelines Ask them to draw out their ideas, NOT script them. Have them practice based on interpreting their own visual cues, each time saying the presentation differently.
When conversing in the big, bad world (AKA BBW) you won’t always have visuals cues, so training your students to speak without them is another option which provides opportunities for circumlocution (description of a word or concept when you can’t think of the word) Look, no script!
Form groups of 3 Make a plan of advice for survival at Westwood High School. (estudiar, hacer ejercicio, desayunar…etc..) Each person should talk about 3 pieces of advice using, “(Ud.)Debe.., (Ud. )Puede…, y (Ud.)Tiene que….” Draw an image to represent each idea. Prepare to share your ideas with the clase (speaking), without reading!
Restaurant Scene In groups of three you are going to prepare a conversation to present to the class. One student will play the role of the waiter and the other three are going to be clients in the restaurant. Requirements: 5 words in the category “talking about how food tastes” 15 words in the “food” category 4 sentences in the category “talking about unintentional events” 4 words with “ísimo” For crédito extra (1-10 points) you can wear costumes and use props during your presentation. You need to turn in the script and rubric before you present. Please mark the required vocab/ grammar on the script with different colors and make a key indicating what your colors represent!
Simple requirements…instead of asking them to apply 15 vocabulary words from a specific list, design the topic so that it solicits use of certain vocabulary authentically Train them from “an early age”! Explain why they should NOT use a script (starting at level 1)
Give quick orals as part of an exam, i.e. randomly move about the room asking students questions based on the topic while they are taking the test. Oral quizzes on appropriate topics. Evidence suggests that students understand the topic better when they do it that way If technology permits, use the language lab, computer lab using Audacity, or hand-held recorders. Saves class time if they record all at once.
During homework review ask them “Why?” Randomly ask a student a question during class in the target language.
Students rotate between responding to stimuli and evaluating a peer’s response to that stimuli For example, while studying art unit students describe works of art from target culture while partner grades them on their performance (see rubric)
1. Performance-based assessment is authentic, connected to everyday life. 2. Performance-based assessment provides opportunities for students to show what they can do as well as what they know. 3. Performance-based assessment involves students in the process of evaluation. 4. Performance-based assessment integrates tasks involving multiple skills and knowledge of culture. 5. Performance-based assessment helps all learners to do their best and aims to improve overall student performance.
Meaningful Writing Activities
Journaling Grading techniques: Completion with observation Grading 1 out of every 5 Sample writing rubrics (see packet) Open ended use of language providing for student ownership Give students choices (of topics) Give varying target audiences …use humor! Give students silly mediums (graffiti art)
Discrete-point testing - language knowledge divided into a number of independent facts: elements of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and punctuation, pronunciation, intonation and stress. (multiple-choice recognition tasks). Integrative testing - realistic language use requires the coordination of many kinds of knowledge in one linguistic event, and so uses items which combine those kinds of knowledge, like comprehension tasks, dictation, speaking and listening. Pros and Cons Discrete-point testing risks ignoring the systematic relationship between language elements; Integrative testing risks ignoring accuracy of linguistic detail.
Spanish example: por vs. para difficult concept traditional method: fill in the blank tasks memorization of uses fried brains 50/50 chance of guessing correctly communicative method: tasks that elicit the desired word
Select a use of por or para to focus on For example, we use por to tell how much you bought something for (exchange). Have them write a paragraph (We use journals) telling how they just went on a shopping spree and they bought each item for (price). The next class day, ask students randomly how much they can buy something for, emphasizing the word “por”. The next class, bring it up again. How are you possibly going to get through all of the uses of por and para? Teach it throughout the year rather than in 2 class periods. Repeat and recycle constantly.
Choose a writing or speaking task that elicits the use of ‘por’ and ‘para’ after having sufficiently covered both over an extended period of time Grade on a rubric that requires production of ‘por’ and ‘para’ as one (and only one) of the characteristics of a properly produced task.
Style Writer uses details to support story. Word choice and placement seems accurate, natural and not forced. 10 Elaboration is used, but occasionally the words are used inaccurately or seem overdone. 9 Writer uses words that communicate clearly, but the writing lacks variety, punch, flair, or elaboration. 7 Writer uses a limited vocabulary that does not communicate strongly or capture the reader's interest. 5 Grammar & Communication (Conventions) Writer makes no errors with por and para AND general grammar doesn’t distract the reader from content. 10 Writer makes 1-2 errors with por and para and/or general grammar distracts reader occasionally. 9 Writer makes 3-4 errors with por/ para & grammar distracts reader from the content. 7 Writer makes more than 4 errors with por/ para that distract the reader from the content. 5 Focus on Topic (Content) Main idea is clear and supporting details are given that enhance main idea. 10 Main idea is clear but the supporting information is general. 8 Main idea is somewhat clear but there is a need for more supporting information. 6 The main idea is not clear. There is a seemingly random collection of information. 4
Legend project: Students investigate an ancient civilization and take notes on relevant facts: mode of transport, religious icons, sustenance, etc. Students study components of a legend Students use the facts from the civilization to write a legend in small groups that explains a phenomenon from that culture Students then present the legend the rest of the class by acting out the story while a narrator from the group reads
PresentationGrammar and VocabularyContent and Elaboration EXCEEDS EXPECTAT. Actors and reader are in tune with one another. Props add to the presentation. Excellent pronunciation and enthusiasm. Enthusiastic actors who clearly portray the story. 4 5 Very few, if any grammatical mistakes and errors in word choice. Audience can easily follow the story. 4 5 The story has a complete and interesting plot that makes sense. Excellent elaboration. Cultural references are interspersed throughout story. 4 5 MEETS EXPECT. Actors and reader have a few awkward moments. Some props which add to the presentation. Some errors in pronunciation. Actors portray the story, but sometimes lack enthusiasm and their actions aren’t always clear. 2 3 Some errors in syntax or mistakes in word choice. These errors do not interfere with comprehension. Audience can follow the story. 2 3 The story has a complete and interesting plot. Some elements don’t quite make sense. Good elaboration. Cultural references are included. 2 3 BELOW EXPECT. Actors and reader are clearly not prepared. Poor or no props. Many errors in pronunciation or flat voice. Actors lack enthusiasm and do not fully portray the story. Actions are confusing. 0 1 Many errors in word choice. These errors make comprehension very difficult. Audience has a difficult time following the story. 0 1 Plot is confusing. Elaboration is poor. There are few, if any cultural references = 10011= 847= 683= 50 14= 9610= 806= 642= 30 13= 92 9= 765= 601= 20 12= 88 8= 724= 560= 0
Give students a topic, list of 10 verbs to use, or a starting sentence. Each student will write for 3 minutes at the top of notebook paper starting a story w/ the given topic. After 3 minutes, students will pass the story to the person behind them for that person to continue where they left off. Students continue rotating, switching every 3 minutes until there is a crazy, but entertaining story told by the entire row. Teacher can enhance and reinforce writing organization strategies by giving the next student a lead word like, "First...", "Later.....", "However"...., Thus....
Employment Students will: Read classified ads, internet job search Create a classified ad Create a resume Writing a cover letter Conduct an interview
Journaling Projects Essays
Welcome back from lunch!
When you think of authentic sources, what kind of sources do you think of first? Written? But what about other types of authentic sources??? Students should listen, read, speak, and write in contextual settings that mimic the real world. With respect to listening: students should hear second language voices from a variety of native-speakers as well as non-native speakers. In addition, motivation can be enhanced by witnessing instructors successfully communicating with other speakers of the language.
Meaningful Listening Activities
Using authentic or textbook generated videos, radio, etc. (see handout) Fill in the blanks from a transcribed copy of the audio selection Make your own comprehension questions appropriate to the level of the class. Students read transcript outloud and then listen Create charts, tables to fill out based on listening
Spanish: streets of your own town, malls, restaurants, panaderías, taquerías, UT Spanish Proficiency Exercises BBC world in Spanish: Radio de las Naciones Unidas: German: festivals in German-American towns in Texas, Wurstfest French: Francais interactif: United Nations Radio in French: Chinese: United Nations Radio in Chinese: Latin: the Vatican ASL: ASL videos on You Tube, Texas School for the DeafASL videos on You Tube
Foreign exchange students at your school Teachers and School staff Westwood has Spanish, French, Chinese, Vietnamese, Portuguese, German, ASL speakers to name a few Ask around, what languages does your staff speak (not just language teachers) Airport Travel with students Personal Travel Foreign consulates (many in Houston)
Authentic resources and media can reinforce for students the direct relationship between the language classroom and the outside world- Brinton (1991) Authentic materials are a way to contextualize learning- Gebhard (1996) Students gain an overall increased motivation to learn, as well as renewed interest in subject matter- Melvin and Stout (1987) Authentic materials bring content and subject matter to life –Nunan (1999)
Students read article written by an American girl living and dating in Costa Rica in which she complains about the cross- cultural differences Students listen to native-speakers talk about romance and dating practices in Costa Rica Students complete active listening task* (see packet) Conclusion: students write their own personal ad in which they are asked to make references to their comprehension of cultural differences in dating practices Finally, students post their personal ads around the room with numbers on them (or on a blog) and peers read and select their partner of choice. Once students are “hooked-up”, they go in the hall to “get to know one another”!!!
Time Comparing and contrasting Tico and American concepts of time...see handout
If you like that idea…why not have your students conduct interviews with native- speakers? (see student produced video) Short shorts…Interviews with Native Speakers (see hand-out)
Students will: listen to the song, fill in the blanks, discuss relevant grammar, draw illustrations of the song on butcher paper choose the line of the song that best captures the message and write it underneath their illustration, & compare groups illustrations.
Dibujos animados con burka (cartoons with burka) o_dibujos_freej_np.shtml o_dibujos_freej_np.shtml Reggaetón news video: clase_reggeaton_ig.shtml clase_reggeaton_ig.shtml Give them a listening link for homework- they listen as many times as they like, when they return to the following class they listen to is one more time and take it one more time and complete an assessment Create comprehension questions using Bloom’s Taxonomy in your language Create a listening comprehension guide (Spanish sample in packet) Teach note-taking skills!!! *** Don’t assume they already know how.
Meaningful Reading Activities
Use community resources (newspapers, magazines, web pages) – steer away from readings that are produced for the LOTE classroom Searching for commands in newspaper; flag them; ask your partner to identify them for the audience that they target (i.e. ud. commands, tu commands) Song investigation (see hand-out) Look for authentic resources that heighten intrinsic motivation. (Ex. - personality quizzes)
Create an interest in the text- Personality “tests” are perfect for this (example in hand-out ‘¿Cuán apasionada eres?’) Heighten the interest by asking students pre- reading questions “Are you passionate?” “What are the characteristics of a passionate person?” Ask them to form small groups (2-3) where they: Predict who will be the most passionate in the group Interpret the questions together, answering each question individually Add points, read about their supposed personality, and compare results
writing or speaking about text; acting out text (with appropriate emotion/tone); See Juan Rulfo in packet illustrating text and/or talking about it
Students read the following article (after listening to a you- tube video in on stimulating activities for the elderly) from the internet: Salud en la vejez: seis consejos básicos para mantener la calidad de vida …Mejorar los hábitos de vida resulta siempre beneficioso para la salud Students are then asked to write a public health announcement for the elderly for a magazine in which they use advice from the reading to support their suggestions in the “anuncio” (see rubric on next slide)
GRAMMARSTYLECreativity/Originality Excellent use of grammar, especially with positive and negative commands. Few, if any, errors of usage. 9– 10 points Excellent elaboration and transition to make an especially engaging product. 18 – 20 points Obvious effort was put forth to make an original but authentic product. Ideas reflect sources but do not copy them. 18 – 20 points Adequate use of grammar, especially with commands. Errors do not interfere with comprehension. 7-8 points Adequate use of elaboration and transition. 13 – 17 points Some effort to incorporate ideas from reading/ listening AND 1-2 sources may be almost explicitly reproduced, but most of work is in student’s own words. 13 – 17 points Frequent errors of verb form, agreement, or syntax, especially with commands. Errors make comprehension difficult. 6 or fewer points Sentence structure is unvaried. Little or no attempt made at elaboration. 0 – 12 points Little or no effort was made to reflect resources OR to paraphrase sources in student’s own words. 0 – 12 points
– convert youtube videos and save to your computer Flip cameras – buy one get one free google it! Yabla.com Spanish and French $10/mo. Interviews on different subjects Discovery channel website BBC – free language lessons Blogger.com Draw a notecard with a topic, find partner with topic, talk for x minutes
“Definition of Performance-Based Assessment” When Grammar Instruction Undermines Cohesion in L2 Spanish Classroom DiscourseWhen Grammar Instruction Undermines Cohesion in L2 Spanish Classroom Discourse Paul D. Toth The Modern Language JournalThe Modern Language Journal, Vol. 88, No. 1 (Spring, 2004), pp Krashen, S. "The 'fundamental pedagogical principle' in second language teaching." Studia linguistica (1981): Print. Rote versus Meaningful Learning Author(s): Richard E. Mayer Source: Theory into Practice, Vol. 41, No. 4, Revising Bloom's Taxonomy (Autumn, 2002), pp Published by: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (Taylor & Francis Group) “Definition of communication”