Presentation on theme: "Multi-Tiered Instruction. Objectives Introduce participants to the multi-tiered model Highlight key information about early reading research Heighten."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Introduce participants to the multi-tiered model Highlight key information about early reading research Heighten participants sense of urgency about early intervention
The best way to predict the future is to invent it. John Sculley, 1987
What is Multi-Tiered Instruction? Systematic, data driven organization Smart use of resources Differentiation: more options EARLY INTERVENTION Accountability New ways for adults to work together A response to ever increasing diversity
First, getting it straight: Is a system of organizing general education curriculum and instruction to meet the needs of all students Integrates all supplementary support programs in order use resources more efficiently Applies to all students in a school Can exist without using Response to Intervention Is an evaluation procedure identified in the IDEA for identifying children as having learning disabilities Is a special education procedure that is limited to assessment Applies only to children suspected of having LD Cannot be implemented without a system like MTI in place Multi-Tiered InstructionResponse to Intervention
Why? One size doesn’t fit all We don’t have enough resources to intervene one by one We miss kids We wait too long to intervene
Differences Learning to Read Estimates from NICHD research (NC Dept. of Public Education) Population %Journey to ReadingInstructional Requirements 5Easy: children read before starting school Need no formal decoding instruction 35Relatively EasyLearn to read regardless of instructional approach 40Formidable ChallengeNeed systematic and explicit instruction 20One of the most difficult tasks to be mastered in school Need intensive, systematic, direct, explicit instruction
We can’t intervene one by one... Overall, national longitudinal studies show that more than 17.5 percent of the nation's children--about 10 million children--will encounter reading problems in the crucial first three years of their schooling" (National Reading Panel Progress Report, 2000). In a 500 student school: 400 students will do fine with a good core curriculum 75 students will need systematic, ongoing specialized instruction 25 students will need intensive, individualized intervention
We miss kids... We over-identify some children Boys Language minority Economically disadvantaged students We under-identify some children Girls Economically privileged students
We wait too long to intervene...and it really matters because: Reading makes you smarter Every week a child is not reading, the chance there will be long term negative effects increases: Cognitive Reading Motivation Mindset, Dr. Carol Dweck
Reading skill forms self concept: “When kids are hesitant, disfluent, inaccurate, slow and labored in reading, that is very visible to their peers and remember the peers, the other kids, again look at reading as a proxy for intelligence. It doesn’t matter if this kid is already a genius and can do algebra in the second grade, reading produces particular perceptions. Better said, lousy reading produces a perception of stupidity and dumbness to peers and clearly to the youngster who is struggling. That is the shame. There are very visible differences between kids who are doing well with print and youngsters who are struggling with print. They feel like they’re failures; they tell us that.” Reid Lyon, Children of the Code, 2006
We wait too long to intervene...and it matters If intervention does not occur before age 7: 75% of children will continue to struggle throughout school (Adams, 1990) Approximately 75% of students identified with reading problems in the third grade are still reading disabled in the 9th grade. (Shaywitz, et al., 1993; Francis et al., 1996)
Reading makes children smarter: “This is a stunning finding because it means that students who get off to a fast start in reading are more likely to read more over the years, and, furthermore, this very act of reading can help children compensate for modest levels of cognitive ability by building their vocabulary and general knowledge. In other words, ability is not the only variable that counts in the development of intellectual functioning. Those who read a lot will enhance their verbal intelligence; that is, reading will make them smarter.” Cunningham and Stanovich, 1998
What did he say? Those who read have more: Vocabulary General Knowledge When you learn more, your brain and intellect develops Shaywitz, Fletcher, etc. This is more important for those with poor backgrounds or less innate ability Reading and the Brain
The Matthew Effect The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. In other words, good readers get smarter while poor readers fall farther and farther behind.
Early reading can change a child’s future: Reading is a key to vocabulary development Vocabulary is the lynchpin of comprehension, prior knowledge and many cognitive skills
Implications for vocabulary development: ESTABLISHED READERS: Learn about 3000 words per year by reading POOR READERS: Could learn 300-500 words per year if provided explicit vocabulary instruction
Implications for vocabulary development Independent Reading %tile Minutes Per Day Words Read Per Year 9865.0 4,358,000 90 21.1 1,823,000 80 14.2 1,146,000 70 9.6 622,000 60 6.5 432,000 50 4.6 282,000 40 3.2 200,000 30 1.3 106,000 20 0.7 21,000 10 0.1 8,000 2 0.0 0 Adapted from Anderson,Wilson, and Fielding (1988).
What about developmental readiness? More on Reading and the Brain
So What? How does this research about early learning and the brain change your thinking about Kindergarten? What practices would change in your school in grades K-3?
So... we adopt a new way of thinking about: Kids Curriculum Time Teamwork
TIER I: Research-Based Core Instruction & Screening for ALL students TIER II: Strategic Intervention & Progress Monitoring TIER III: Intensive Intervention & Progress Monitoring ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% 3-Tiered Continuum (Walker, 1996) The Multi-Tiered Model:
Moved to Tiers Ken Howell Western Washington University 26 Tier 1 : Severely and Profoundly OK = a.k.a ‘the Bore level’ Ozone Tier 2: Passing Zone non-responders Texas Tiers Tier 17: Zoned in Zoned out Zone of Proximal Development Beyond Tiers Insensitive Level