3 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of NCLB Impact of NCLBReading skills and overall academic performance have improvedScientifically Based Literacy InstructionKey elements are phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension
4 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of RTI Response to Intervention (RTI)Students’ ability to learn is evaluated by noting how well they respond to instruction of varying degrees of intensity.Universal ScreeningTier I: Improving the General ProgramStudents are provided with the best possible general literacy program, instruction is differentiated, and progress is monitored at least 3 times a year.Tiers II and III: InterventionIncludes 20% of students15% need only Tier II, 5% need Tier III also
5 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of RTI RTI and English Language LearnersProblem-Solving Approach versus Standard ProtocolProblem solvingStandard protocolMonitoring ProgressCollaborationImpact of RTI on Your Teaching
6 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students English Language LearnersProvide a Secure EnvironmentBuild LanguageStagesCoping StrategiesProvide Comprehensible InputModelingRunning commentaryExpansionRedirect
7 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students Build Academic LanguageLanguage skills (big and small words)Thinking skills of analyzing, explaining, inferring, and organizingAppropriate grammarBackground knowledgeAssess Students’ Academic Language and BackgroundBuilding Academic Language Benefits All StudentsStages of Second-Language Acquisition
8 Stages of Second-Language Acquisition Teaching QuestionsPreproductionWhat, who, where, yes/noEarly ProductionWhat, who, where, either/orSpeech EmergenceWhat, who, where, whenIntermediateWhat, who, where, when, whyAdvancedContinue to provide support
9 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students Use cooperative learning and peer tutoring strategiesUse printIntentional, systematic instructionFocus on academic languageAcademic English instruction should be part of the core curriculumTeach vocabulary constantly
10 Students at Risk Economically disadvantaged students Culturally diverse studentsStudents with learning disabilitiesStudents with attention deficit disorderStudents with intellectual disabilitiesSlow learnersStudents with language and speech disorders
11 Economically Disadvantaged Students Principles for teaching economically disadvantaged children:Build backgroundCreate an atmosphere of successMake instruction explicitProvide a balanced programProvide access to books and magazinesCounteract the fourth-grade slump
12 Culturally Diverse Students Teachers should become acquainted with students’ cultures.Recognize that you perceive students through your own cultural lens (Maldonaldo-Colon, 2003).Develop teaching techniques appropriate for diverse learning styles.Accept students’ languages and dialects while modeling standard English.
13 Students with Learning Disabilities In , 9.6% of U.S. students aged 3-21 received special education services.The largest category of special needs students is the group identified as learning disabled.80% of students classified as learning disabled have a reading difficulty.
14 Students with Attention Deficit Disorder Meaningful and interesting tasksChoices of materials and tasksMobility in the classroomWork in groupsMinimize formal testsDirections must be understoodHomework assignments must be understoodStudents keep a calendarUse visual aidsMultiple, brief periods of practiceWork with parentsMinimize distractionsClear classroom proceduresHighlight important informationUse peer tutoringUse computers
15 Students with Intellectual Disabilities Make explicit the processes of reading and writing by using modeling and other techniques.Develop functional literacy skillsReading traffic and warning signs, labels, cooking directions, common forms, and newspapers
16 Slow LearnersFunction on a higher level than students with intellectual disabilities but on a lower level than average students.“More so” students: They need the same instruction that regular students need, but more so (guidance, practice, time, etc.).
17 Students with Language and Speech Disorders Speech impairmentsdo not directly affect reading or writing.Children with slow language developmentcan experience delays in acquiring basic reading and writing skills.Children with language disordersexperience disruption in the language development process.
18 Gifted and Talented Students Instruction for gifted and talented students should help themLearn to select appropriate booksLearn to investigate areas of interestLearn to use library and research toolsLearn study skills, if necessaryParticipate in reading and writing workshopsParticipate in Junior Great Books (can also be used with average and struggling readers)
19 InclusionTeaching students who have disabilities or special needs within the general education classroom.Warm, accepting atmosphereModificationsAltering curriculum or other school policy to aid students with disabilitiesAccommodationsChanges in the way students are taught
20 Implications of Diversity, NCLB, and RTI for Instruction Diversity means teachers need to differentiate instruction.Teachers should try to bring all students to proficiency as mandated by NCLB.Teachers should take a long-term view of literacy.Teachers should be aware of the major findings of literacy research and should become teacher-researchers.