Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Literacy for All: NCLB, RTI, and Diversity in the Literacy Program This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law."— Presentation transcript:
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of NCLB Impact of NCLB –Reading skills and overall academic performance have improved Scientifically Based Literacy Instruction –Key elements are phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of RTI Response to Intervention (RTI) –Students’ ability to learn is evaluated by noting how well they respond to instruction of varying degrees of intensity. Universal Screening Tier I: Improving the General Program –Students are provided with the best possible general literacy program, instruction is differentiated, and progress is monitored at least 3 times a year. Tiers II and III: Intervention –Includes 20% of students –15% need only Tier II, 5% need Tier III also
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of RTI RTI and English Language Learners Problem-Solving Approach versus Standard Protocol –Problem solving –Standard protocol Monitoring Progress Collaboration Impact of RTI on Your Teaching
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students English Language Learners Provide a Secure Environment Build Language –Stages –Coping Strategies Provide Comprehensible Input –Modeling –Running commentary –Expansion –Redirect
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students Build Academic Language –Language skills (big and small words) –Thinking skills of analyzing, explaining, inferring, and organizing –Appropriate grammar –Background knowledge Assess Students’ Academic Language and Background Building Academic Language Benefits All Students Stages of Second-Language Acquisition
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Stages of Second-Language Acquisition 5 Stages of Second Language Acquisition Teaching Questions Preproduction What, who, where, yes/no Early Production What, who, where, either/or Speech EmergenceWhat, who, where, when IntermediateWhat, who, where, when, why AdvancedContinue to provide support
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students Use cooperative learning and peer tutoring strategies Use print Intentional, systematic instruction –Focus on academic language –Academic English instruction should be part of the core curriculum –Teach vocabulary constantly
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Students at Risk Economically disadvantaged students Culturally diverse students Students with learning disabilities Students with attention deficit disorder Students with intellectual disabilities Slow learners Students with language and speech disorders
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Economically Disadvantaged Students Principles for teaching economically disadvantaged children: –Build background –Create an atmosphere of success –Make instruction explicit –Provide a balanced program –Provide access to books and magazines –Counteract the fourth-grade slump
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Culturally Diverse Students Teachers should become acquainted with students’ cultures. Recognize that you perceive students through your own cultural lens (Maldonaldo-Colon, 2003). Develop teaching techniques appropriate for diverse learning styles. Accept students’ languages and dialects while modeling standard English.
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Students with Learning Disabilities In , 9.6% of U.S. students aged 3-21 received special education services. The largest category of special needs students is the group identified as learning disabled. 80% of students classified as learning disabled have a reading difficulty.
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Students with Attention Deficit Disorder Meaningful and interesting tasks Choices of materials and tasks Mobility in the classroom Work in groups Minimize formal tests Directions must be understood Homework assignments must be understood Students keep a calendar Use visual aids Multiple, brief periods of practice Work with parents Minimize distractions Clear classroom procedures Highlight important information Use peer tutoring Use computers
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Students with Intellectual Disabilities Make explicit the processes of reading and writing by using modeling and other techniques. Develop functional literacy skills –Reading traffic and warning signs, labels, cooking directions, common forms, and newspapers
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Slow Learners Function on a higher level than students with intellectual disabilities but on a lower level than average students. “More so” students: They need the same instruction that regular students need, but more so (guidance, practice, time, etc.).
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Students with Language and Speech Disorders Speech impairments –do not directly affect reading or writing. Children with slow language development –can experience delays in acquiring basic reading and writing skills. Children with language disorders –experience disruption in the language development process.
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Gifted and Talented Students Instruction for gifted and talented students should help them –Learn to select appropriate books –Learn to investigate areas of interest –Learn to use library and research tools –Learn study skills, if necessary –Participate in reading and writing workshops –Participate in Junior Great Books (can also be used with average and struggling readers)
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Inclusion Teaching students who have disabilities or special needs within the general education classroom. –Warm, accepting atmosphere –Modifications Altering curriculum or other school policy to aid students with disabilities –Accommodations Changes in the way students are taught
Copyright Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2010 Implications of Diversity, NCLB, and RTI for Instruction Diversity means teachers need to differentiate instruction. Teachers should try to bring all students to proficiency as mandated by NCLB. Teachers should take a long-term view of literacy. Teachers should be aware of the major findings of literacy research and should become teacher-researchers.