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Chapter 14 Manipulating the Brain
Electrical Activity in the Brain
Electrical Activity at the Cellular Level + _ + _ + _ _
Balance There are many neurotransmitters Some excite (depolarize) Some inhibit (hyperpolarize) Some go both ways (depending on the receiving cell) A balance of excitation and inhibition
Drugs Alter balance Beyond the limits of excitation is seizure Beyond the limits of inhibition is respiratory failure, cardiovascular collapse and death
General Depressants Ethyl alcohol (the kind you drink, all others are poison) Barbiturates Anesthetics
General Depressants Depress electrical activity Disrupt membranes and increase action of GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter) All electrically excitable cells are effected –Nerves –Muscles (heart, skeletal, smooth) –Kidney
Inhibition is more sensitive than excitation
Barbiturates Sedatives and hypnotics Non-selective general depression of electrical activity Barbituric acid, pentobarbital, seconal, pentothal- How long they last
Barbiturate Uses Epilepsy – many types Sleeping pills Side effects –Tolerance- The more you take, the more you need to take to have the same effect –Dependence- Adverse reaction to withdrawal
Barbiturates – Other Side Effects Liver – increased metabolism of –Barbiturates –Steroids –Fat soluble vitamins
Ethyl Alcohol The kind you drink Brain Liver Cardiovascular Digestion
Selective depression of electrical activity in the brain Manipulation of specific neurotransmitter systems Increase inhibition Decrease excitation
Benzodiazepines Aka. Librium, Valium Increase the effect of GABA on the receiving cell Inhibition within a level –Reticular formation –Hypothalamus –Limbic system –Cerebral cortex
Benzodiazepines: Uses Sleeping pills Less depression of medullary centers than barbiturates Some types of epilepsies Parkinson’s disease Anti-anxiety
Benzodiazepines: Side Effects Drowsiness, fatigue, loss of co-ordination, dizziness, blurred vision, behavioral With alcohol – lethal Tolerance Dependence
Neurotransmitters: Excitation and Inhibition
Food Additives MSG (monosodium glutamate) Aspartame –40% aspartic acid –50% phenylalanine –10% methanol
Glycine Strychnine – glycine antagonist Exciting - even to seizures
Mixed Neurotransmitters Sometimes excitatory, sometimes inhibitory Depends on receiving cell Biogenic amines
Synthesis of Biogenic Amines Neurotransmitters Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Biogenic Amines Adrenalin/noradrenalin –Stress Responses –Reward –Arousal –Mood Dopamine Motor control Social behavior Hypothalamic releasing factors
Serotonin AKA – 5-hydroxytryptamine Lining of digestive system Platelets Brain –Mood –Drives –Thinking and perception –Sleep and attention –Hypothalamus
Mechanism of Transmission
Many Drugs Cross-reactivity between receptors Subtypes of receptors Drugs –Antagonists –Agonists –Block destruction –Block re-uptake –Cause release
“Speeds” Amphetamine and derivatives Cocaine Both cause release and block re-uptake Acute stress response Euphoria, paranoia Extreme focus of attention Seizures
“Speed” Uses Attention deficit disorder (ADD) Diet Pills Recreation
Speed and the Sympathetic Nervous System
Depression What is it? Unipolar Bipolar (manic – depression cycling)
Antidepressants Hypothesis: depression is caused by depletion of one or more of the biogenic amines in the limbic system
Tricyclic Antidepressants Blocks recovery of noradrenalin and serotonin Causes build-up of both Interferes with both sympathetic and parasympathetic control
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Block the enzymes that break down monoamines Biogenic amines build up in nerves and leak out Monoamines are in many places the besides brain…also in foods
Prozac and Paxil Blocks the reuptake of serotonin which causes build up Adverse effects –Headache –Nausea –Dry mouth –Dizziness, tremors –Sexual dysfunction Hallucinations, aggression (LSD)????????????
Lithium Li + …….Na + Limited range between efficacy and toxicity Kidney toxicity
Mental Disorders Psychosis Schizophrenia Hypothesis: serotonin deficiency in limbic system Psychotomimetic drugs (LSD) Dopamine excess???? Parkinson’s disease
Drugs Phenothiazines –Block dopamine and other biogenic amines –Even out behavior, sedation –Muscle tremors –Lots of problems but makes person tractable
Epilepsy Uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain Benzodiazopines, barbiturates Phenytoin (dilantin), Valproate – Na + channel blocker Ca ++ channel blockers
Xanthines Blocks the breakdown of the second messenger cAMP Caffeine, theobromine - food Theophylline - drug
Nicotine Stimulates sympathetic response Attention Drug seeking behavior
Cannabinoids (AKA: marijuana) Mixture of compounds >Cannabinoid receptors: two types Immune Nervous system >endocannabinoids – anandamide (synthesized from arachidonic acid) >synthetic (pharmacological)
Cannabinoids cont. >Psychoactive (general feeling of well-being, heighten awareness of sound and sight) most active psychotrophic: delta-9– tetrahydrocannabinol >Immune system: anti-inflammatory >Nervous system: AIDs and cancer: decrease nausea, increase hunger Glaucoma: decrease intraocular pressure chronic pain: decrease perception
Balance Drugs alter the balances of the brain
The Nervous System-Part II Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Disease of the Brain.
The Nervous System-Part II Neurotransmitters. Action Potentials Target Neurotransmitter Release.
Other Medicines. Andrenergic Antagonists (Blockers) Bind to receptor site but do not cause an action Bind to receptor site but do not cause an action.
Target the Limbic System (Emotions & Primary reward circuit) Primary Neurotransmitter is Dopamine. (Normally rewards natural behavior-Evolutionary.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 18, Section 6 4/13/2013 Chemical Messengers Neurotransmitters Hormones Supplemental.
Psychoactive Drugs Drugs that affect the brain, changing mood or behavior % of adults in North America use some kind of drug on a daily basis. The.
Neurotransmitters Information in this presentation taken from UCCP Content.
Homeostatic Systems and Drugs Chapter 4. Homeostasis Internal and external changes in the environment Body self-regulates via nervous system and endocrine.
Synaptic Transmission How a neuron communicates with another neuron and the effects of drugs on this process. Types of Neurotransmitters.
Amines & Amides Dr. Michael P. Gillespie. Introduction Amines and Amides contain nitrogen. Nitrogen is an important component in the structure of the.
Synapse and Neurotransmitters. The Synapse Synapse: junction between a neuron and another neuron or muscle cell When a wave of polarization reaches the.
NEUROTRANSMITTERS THE MESSENGERS OF NERVE CELLS.
NT’s, Receptors and their actions Cholinergic Receptors (receptors that respond to Ach) –Nicotinic –Muscarinic Adrenergic Receptors (receptors that respond.
JOSEPH DE SOTO MD, PHD, FAIC Drugs of Abuse. Overview At any given month about 10% of the population is using drugs which are considered illegal. These.
NEURONS & NEURAL TRANSMISSION NEUROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF DRUG ACTION.
© Cengage Learning 2016 Psychopharmacology Chapter Four.
Drug Effects. Vocabulary Review What are chemicals that change perceptions and moods? PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS Why is it that frequent drinkers do not feel.
E.4 Neurotransmitters and Synapses. E4.1 Postsynaptic Responses Pre-synaptic neurons can inhibit or excite the post synaptic neuron by releasing excitatory.
DRUG CATEGORIES DEFINITIONS AND SIDE EFFECTS. DEPRESSANTS – A PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG THAT SLOWS BRAIN AND BODY REACTIONS Barbiturates Definition A class of.
What is a neurotransmitter? Chemicals secreted by neurons Stimulated action potential in adjacent neurons Two types of responses: Excitatory Inhibitory.
Neurotransmitters Many Neurotransmitters (NT) exist: -Dopamine -Adrenaline -Serotonin -Acetylcholine Drugs can either: –Increase the effect of certain.
States of consciousness Prof. dr. Anton M.L. Coenen NICI – Department of Biological Psychology Radboud University Nijmegen The Netherlands
I CAN Explain psychopharmacology Describe properties, use, and side effects of: Antipsychotic Medications Anti-depressants Anti-anxiety stimulants Copyright.
Mosby items and derived items © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 11 Antianxiety Agents.
Commonly Abused Drugs. 1.Depressants- slow down the activity of the brain and CNS -alcohol - #1 mood altering drug in the U.S. -barbiturates – usually.
The Central Nervous System. Neuron è The basic functional unit of the CNS è Exhibits excitability è Exhibits conductivity.
Neurons & the Nervous System Chapter 2: The Brain and Behavior.
Acetylcholine Muscle action Learning/Memory Decreased levels associated with Alzheimer disease.
Cannabis: The plants used for making marijuana Plant features Annual Dioecious Flowering Wind-pollinated.
Neuropathophysiology Synaptic Transmission & Neurotransmitters September 24, 2012 Ashkan Afshin.
Option E.4. Assessment Statements E.4.1 State that some presynaptic neurons excite postsynaptic transmission and others inhibit postsynaptic transmission.
Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Stimulants. Alcohol Alcoholic Beverages –all contain ethyl alcohol, but different % –Serving of alcohol = ½ oz. Absorbed.
Catalyst #17 Pg. 87- Take out Flashcards 1.Go to the class website Open and do the Catalyst: Anatomy: Lesson 85- Catalyst #17-4/3-4/4 AND ANATOMY: LESSON.
7.3 Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs: chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness.
Chemotherapy. Assumption of the Biological Approach The biological approach is interested in how behaviour is influenced by chemical imbalances in the.
What about communication between neurons?. presynaptic ending – ◦ portion of the axon conveying information to the next neuron.
Neuron Anatomy. Neurons Neuron is a nerve cell that communicates with the entire body (glands, muscles…). Cell Body produces energy for the cell to.
Unit 3 – Neurobiology and Communication Neurotransmitters, Mood and Behaviour.
Neurotransmitters Lecture 13. CRITERIA n NT found in axon terminals n NT released by action potentials n Synthesis identified n External application mimic.
Drugs and the Nervous System. Classes of Drugs 1. Depressants 2. Stimulants 3. Hallucinogens.
CATEGORIES OF OF DRUGS DRUGS STIMULANTS DEPRESSANTS HALLUCINOGENS CANNABIS NARCOTICS INHALANTS STEROIDS DESIGNER DRUGS.
chemicals released by vesicles in sending neuron travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on receiving neuron 2 TYPES = EXCITATORY = stimulate.
A synapse divides at least 2 (usually more) neurons by ~20nm. Presynaptic Neurons: carry impulses to the synapse Postsynaptic Neurons: carry impulses.
Types of Psychoactive Drugs How they work. 4 WAYS THAT DRUGS WORK: 1.Some drugs, like heroin and LSD, mimic the effects of a natural neurotransmitter.
CNS STIMULANTS SAMUEL AGUAZIM. What is the definition of a CNS stimulant? A CNS stimulant is a drug that increases motor activity, causes excitement and.
MEDITATION Spiritual or simply a relaxation technique?
Isahel N. Alfonso, R.N. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Fluoxetine Fluvoxamine Paroxetine Sertraline Citalopram Tricyclic Compound (TCA)
Stimulants: An Overview Nature of Stimulants Most widely consumed drug in the United States Such drugs increase alertness and increase energy Examples.
Agents Used to Treat Seizures and Epilepsy Chapter 31.
Those we control (become easier to reach the benefits with time) Hypnosis Biofeedback Meditation Those we do not (need to be increased in order.
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