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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

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1 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
INOV 101 February, 2008

2 Purpose Better self management through heightened self-awareness.
Understand mental diversity and strengthen relationships with others. Identify preferences and how these preferences are similar and different from others on the team. Develop and sharpen interpersonal skills that will heighten personal and job effectiveness. Have some fun.

3 Agenda Review the MBTI dimensions MBTI results, self-validation
Class profile MBTI and change MBTI and leadership MBTI and decision-making

4 Exercise Handwriting Cross arms Clasp hands Describe the differences
Easy Hard Comfortable Awkward Effortless Concentrated Natural Unnatural Fast Slow Mature Immature Competent Incompetent This is a good ice-breaker and helps define what is meant by preference and the fact that they are not good or bad, just different. 1. Have everyone write their first name on a piece of paper 2. Have them repeat writing, but using their other hand 1. have everyone cross their arms 2. Have everyone repeat this, but with their arms crossed the other way 1. Have everyone clasp their hands together, intermeshing their fingers. 2. Have everyone repeat this, but with the opposite thumb on top and the fingers meshed accordingly These are all examples of preferences - it's not that someone couldn't do it the other way, it's just that one prefers to do it their own way.

5 Individual Preferences
Part of our “filters” – the way people see the world is different. No right or wrong type - another form of diversity. Type has nothing to do with ability or competence. Meant for normal, healthy, well adjusted adults. This is a theory - it cannot be proven, but can be supported and/or refuted. Everyone uses every preference. However, we favor one preference over the other on each of the four scales. The basis of the MBTI is that different people "prefer" different things and the MBTI is one way of showing this typology. An important concept is that there is no right or wrong type or that any particular type has any negative connotation. Another important ethical aspect is the last point -- participants did not, if they chose, have to divulge their type publicly. All of the MBTI results were given to each person in a sealed envelope.

6 Trait vs. Type Inborn or acquired More or less
Too much or too little is diagnostic Normally distributed Inborn preference Either or Too much or too little is irrelevant Bimodal Most psychological tools determine traits, whereas MBTI determines type. The key concept here is that you are not a slight E or a strong E, you are an E.

7 History C. G. Jung’s theory-(Swiss psychoanalyst) 1875-1968
Psychological Types - translated into English in 1921 Katharine Cook Briggs ( ) Isabel Briggs Myers ( ) type watching and validating Jung’s theory 30 years of development for the indicator - form A in 1942 1962 by ETS for research only, generally available in 1976 Currently over 6000 references In use world wide – Published by CPP Relevance By understanding how you and others see the world differently, you will gain insight into communications and relationships

8 Preference Description
Four scales: E or I: Extraversion or Introversion is attitude. How do you direct your energy? S or N: Sensing or iNtuition is a perceiving function. How do you input? T or F: Thinking or Feeling is a judging function. How do you process? J or P: Judging or Perceiving is a lifestyle orientation. How do you relate to the outside? Description of the four different scales of the MBTI I asked each to guess at their type after the description of each of the scales and we then compared this to what their surveys had determined.

9 MBTI E ------------------------------------ I

10 E or I (Attitude) It’s where you get your energy and where you direct your energy: outside or inside Extra (not extro) Act and (maybe) reflect “talk it out” Lots of “friends” Breadth Like working in groups Intra Reflect and (maybe) act “think it through” A few close friends Depth Prefer solitary activities People prefer to be extraverted or introverted and it where they derive their energy.

11 Key Words Active Outward Sociable People Many Expressive Breadth
Live it, then understand it Reflective Inward Reserved Privacy Few Quiet Depth Understand it, before live it These are some key words that describe the bi-modal nature of attitude. The words have been carefully chosen not to show that one side or the other is better. For example, I wouldn't use Active vs.. Passive because "passive" can be misinterpreted as being not as good as "active". Similarly for "sociable". Using "reserved" is better than "unsociable". Self-Assess

12 E’s View Admire about I’s Baffled by Do things on their own
Nice not to be center of attention Not feeling like you have to speak up Think things through Baffled by Why they take so long to answer

13 I’s View Admire about E’s Baffled by High energy Too many words Verbal
Doers Risk takers Comfortable with self and others Confidence Baffled by Too many words Don’t shut up Too Impulsive Opinionated Changeable

14 S or N Function It’s how you prefer to input - the perceiving mental function It is irrational (we have no control) Input - S Directly via the senses - specific parts - present - practical Step by step Structured Input - N 6th sense or hunch - relationships - future - imagine Jump in anywhere Skip steps The next two letters of the MBTI are the perceiving (S or N) and the judgment (T or F) mental functions. I often use the computer analogy - S or N are how you chose to input and T or F are how you chose to process

15 Key Words S N Details Present Practical Facts Sequential Directions
Repetition Enjoyment Perspiration Conserve Literal Patterns Future Imaginative Innovations Random Hunches Variety Anticipation Inspiration Change Figurative Again, a concerted effort to make these pairs both denote good things. Self - Assess

16 S’s on “leaf” fall tree rake flowers salad pile compost mulch
4 leaf clover burning smell autumn

17 N’s on “leaf” floating new fur crust art blower table mulch symbol
raking rain play art leaf dried spring gold thru a book burning oak sun new crispy slippery dead red change bare sunlight through lettuce salad acorns shade gutters floating new fur crust art blower table mulch symbol tumbling light autumn leaf me alone Erickson Pot MINT JULEPS decay

18 T or F Function It’s how you prefer to process information Process - T
Rational, judging mental function Process - T Objective Head Principles (truth, justice) Process - F Subjective Heart Value (relationship, harmony) T's use their heads, F's use their hearts

19 Key Words T F Head Objective Justice Cool Impersonal Critique Analyze
Precise Principles Heart Subjective Harmony Caring Personal Appreciate Empathize Persuasive Values Again - careful words pairs. Justice and Injustice would not be good. Self-Assess

20 J or P The Lifestyle What does the outside world see? J P Ordered
Planned Decisive P Spontaneous Flexible Curious The last letter was something that Myers and Briggs added to Jung's theory and it denotes what the outside world sees, based on our preferences.

21 Key Words Organized Flexible Structure Flow Control Experience
J P Organized Structure Control Decisive Deliberate Closure Plan Deadlines Productive Flexible Flow Experience Curious Spontaneous Openness Wait Discoveries Receptive In decision making, the J's want to come to closure whereas the P's are always in search of more data before making a decision. Self-Assess

22 Contributions of Preferences
Extraverted types Remain aware of the environment, maintain their networks, and take action. Introverted types Pay attention to the infrastructure, conceptualize the problem, and look deeply into issues.

23 Contributions of Preferences
Sensing types Know the facts, understand the planning stages, and work out implementation details. Intuitive types See the big picture, forge into new areas, and develop new possibilities.

24 Contributions of Preferences
Thinking types Discuss the issues in a logical way, consider the pros and cons of various alternatives, and spot the inconsistencies in a plan. Feeling types Understand what is important to people, acknowledge the human side of decision making, and help others accept decisions.

25 Contributions of Preferences
Judging types Generate systems, provide organization, and act with decisiveness. Perceiving types Are open to new ideas, provide insight, and react with flexibility if the system breaks down.

26 MBTI Results This is a hypothesis until it is verified by you
Reasons for differences between survey and self-assessment: Feeling torn between demands of work and self preferences Questions were answered in terms of what you thought was expected Terms used were misunderstood Confusion due to perceived social pressure Currently in a growth period developing new processes Suffering illness or sleep deprivation

27 Team Type Lens ISTJ 7 ISFJ 2 INFJ 3 INTJ 3 ISTP 2 ISFP 1 INFP 2 INTP 3

28 Using Different “Lenses”
Quadrants Lens: Change Temperament Lens: Leadership Dynamics Lens: Problem-solving or decision-making


30 Quadrants and Change IS IN ES EN Thoughtful Realists
Like to test their ideas to see whether they are supported by the facts; they want to deal with practical, concrete information in a careful and unhurried way. “Let’s keep it!” IN Thoughtful and Innovative Introspective and do their best work in theoretical fields where ideas and depth of understanding are important. They value knowledge for its own sake. “Let’s think about it differently!” ES Action-oriented Realists Want to see that practical tasks are carried out. They prefer a work environment where realistic, down-to-earth tasks and problems are managed. Prefer a culture that focuses on results relating to people, data, or things. “Let’s do it!” EN Action-oriented and Innovative Value change, see possibilities as a key aspect of their work, and like to be challenged and to challenge others. They tend to have a wide range of interests and are willing to work with systems or relationships. “Let’s change it!”

31 Introducing Change to the Quadrants
IS Relate it to what I know. Make practical sense to me. Change at a steady pace, step by step. Be careful and mindful of details. Give me time to think about it. IN Relate it to new theories and concepts. Let me work on change that has impact. Don’t burden me with routines; let me set my own pace. Let me set my own quality control and standards. ES Relate it to the work I do. Show me the practical results change will bring. Offer a steady progression, step by step. Let me “hash it over” with others. Show me that my work will be more effective if I make the change. EN Relate it to changing things in my world. Challenge my imagination. Minimize the routine; maximize the variety. Let me work on the broad focus and overview of the change. Let me try to change the world.

32 Temperaments Lens NF (10) NT (11) ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ SJ (14) ISTP

33 SJ – Asks “What?” ISFJ, ESFJ, ISTJ, ESTJ
Loyal to system Duty Super-dependable Resists change Preserves traditions Precise “Don’t fix what isn’t broken” Authority dependent Procedures Decisive Stability “Should”, “Should not” Social responsibility Structure Orderly

34 SJ Leader Traditionalist/Administrator
Work hard/keep busy Facts before action Briefed to last detail Results oriented Impatient with schedule/agenda changes Organize for stability Prefer written communications Discovered Murphy’s law Difficulty expressing appreciation Tendency to overkill

35 SP – Asks “When?” ISTP, ISFP, ESTP, ESFP
Free spirit Action-oriented Fun-loving Good in crisis situations “When all else fails, read directions” Impulsive Needs freedom and space Flexible/Adaptable Realistic Uninhibited Enjoys the moment Practical Spontaneous Likes hands-on experience Most joyful Seeks change and variety

36 SP Leader Promoter/Troubleshooter
Work smart No wasted motion Opportunistic Everything is negotiable Focus is right now Little interest in tradition Impatient with theory/abstraction Express appreciation easily Can be unpredictable Can be too impulsive

37 NF – Asks “Who?” INFJ, INFP, ENFP, ENFJ
Interpersonal skills Supportive of others Sympathetic Relationships Seductive Possiblilities for people Interaction Cooperation Vivid imagination Mysterious Hypersensitive to conflict Search for self Autonomy Needs encouragement and recognition Integrity “Becoming”

38 NF Leader Democratic/Catalytic
Organizational climate over structure Good listener Good spokesperson Anti-authoritarian Emotional and persuasive Flair for dramatizing the mundane Might get overextended Can create dependencies Need to schedule renewal time Easily express appreciation of people

39 NT – Asks “Why?” INTJ, INTP, ENTP, ENTJ
High achievers Knowledge Objective perceptions Independent Self-doubt Intellectually curious Conceptualizers Non-conformist Competition with self Wordsmiths Principles Enjoys complexity Authority independent Architect of change Systems designers Argumentative What would happen if…?

40 NT Leader Visionary/Scientist
Systems/theory focused Organize around theoretical framework Architects of change Tend to stand on principle Powerful behind the scenes Masters of the technical Impatient with human conditions Responsive to intellectual appeals Express appreciation of ideas Tendency to overplan

41 Type Dynamics DOMINANT Least Preferred AUXILIARY Tertiary

42 P J MBTI E ------------------------------------ I

43 Eight Extraverted and Introverted Dominant Functions
Se Dominant Extraverted Sensing (ESTP & ESFP) Goal: to experience as much as possible; to have an unending variety of sensing experience Si Dominant Introverted Sensing (ISTJ & ISFJ) Goal: to form a solid, substantial, and accurate understanding of the world around them and their place in it Ne Dominant Extraverted Intuition (ENTP & ENFP) Goal: to find and explore new possibilities, new and exciting challenges Ni Dominant Introverted Intuition (INTJ & INFJ) Goal: to develop their inner intuitive patterns for understanding the world

44 Eight Extraverted and Introverted Dominant Functions
Te Dominant Extraverted Thinking (ESTJ & ENTJ) Goal: to create logical order in their external world; to make their environment rational Ti Dominant Introverted Thinking (ISTP & INTP) Goal: to create logical order internally; to develop rational principles for understanding the world Fe Dominant Extraverted Feeling (ESFJ & ENFJ) Goal: to create harmony and cooperation in their external environment; to facilitate others in getting what they need and want Fi Dominant Introverted Feeling (ISFP & INFP) Goal: to develop their internal core of values, establish an external life that is congruent with them, and help both individuals and humankind fulfill their potential

45 Dominants’ Approach to Problem Solving S and N
How is the problem best defined? What are the ramifications now? What goals are we working toward? How can time lines be established and what are the intermediate objectives? What costs are incurred – financial, emotional, etc.? N What are the common threads? What are the multiple alternatives? What is the relationship of the part to the system? What are the opportunities for growth? What are our hunches about this issue?

46 Dominants’ Approach to Problem Solving T and F
Is this a legitimate issue? How does it affect the bottom line? What are the pros and cons? What is the relationship of cause to effect? What are the systemic qualities? F What are people’s feelings concerning this? How can different sides be accommodated? What’s the most diplomatic way to proceed? What will increase harmony? How does this affect me and the people I care about?

47 How to Work with the Dominants
Sensing Dominants It has to make sense Stability Intuitive Dominants It has to appeal to the imagination Change Thinking Dominants It has to be logical Effective Feeling Dominants It has to consider aspirations. Integrity

48 Use All Functions for Problem Solving
Sensing Perception Determine the facts, givens, and other data. Assets and liabilities. Intuitive Perception Look at possibilities, ways to change, brainstorm. Future implications. Thinking Judgment Make an objective analysis of the situation. Look at logical consequences. Feeling Judgment Look at the people consequences of different options. Weigh against your values.

49 Journey “Learning to respect individual differences
is not something that truly has an end; it is a learning that asks of us ongoing attention and a willingness to grow” C.R. Martin

50 Time to relax

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