Presentation on theme: "Differentiation Carroll Independent School District’s mini-guide to"— Presentation transcript:
1Differentiation Carroll Independent School District’s mini-guide to The information in this booklet is used with permission of Carol Tomlinson, Ed.D.Nancy Rindone, Ed.D.compiled byDirector of Staff Development
2Carroll Independent School District Philosophical Underpinnings VisionWE envision an individualized and personalized education for each student.MissionWE are committed to those actions that bring about an individualized and personalized education that challenges each student.Philosophical UnderpinningsThe Board of Trustees believes it is important to encourage, support, and assist each student in his or her academic development. Where ability is concerned, equality consists of providing equally well for all kinds and levels of individual differences. That students differ may be inconvenient, but it is inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students. In recognition of the diverse needs of students, we support differentiation and acceleration appropriate to student needs as determined through assessment.By "individualized" education, we mean those teaching practices that provide a basis for assessing where the student is relative to a unit of instruction, deliver instruction in a differentiated manner so as to appropriately remediate, enrich, and/or accelerate, while holding standards at grade level for all students.By "personalized" education, we mean those classroom and school practices that recognize the uniqueness of each student learner and thus provide for adequate tutorial and guidance and counseling suited to develop the whole person in mind, body, and spirit.By "challenging" education, we mean those practices that stretch all learners to become all they can be academically, learning optimally (or to their full potential) in language arts, mathematics, social studies, and science in particular, and in all subject matter generally.AE (LOCAL)
3CISD Timeline for Differentiation ’03-’04: Understand & Practice1. a common language of CISD curriculum and differentiation2. a deep understanding of CISD curriculum & differentiation3. some practice of “low-prep/high-prep” D.I. Strategies in classrooms4. some classroom observation of D.I. Lessons5. collect/reflect on district/school/classroom progress’04-’05: Understand & Practice (See cycle of strategies, 1-5, above.)Summer ’05: Policy Development (e.g., preassessment for units of instruction, district-level benchmark assessments, Instructional Management Systems, staff development, classroom observations, teacher evaluation, grading & reporting, parent involvement, etc.)’05-’06: Formally implement Differentiated Instruction in CISD Classrooms
4CISD Benchmark for Teacher “Practice” of Differentiated Instruction One approach to becoming comfortable with differentiation in a way that doesn’t overtake your life is toYear One: select a few low-prep strategies you’re comfortable with + select one high-prep strategy per unit or semester to add to your repertoireYear Two: hone the strategies from Year One + add one or two more low and high prep strategiesYear Three & after: “In [the above] cumulative way, you can work your way to a highly differentiated classroom in four or five years, without feeling absolutely frenzied along the way.”Source: Tomlinson, How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, ASCD, 2nd Ed., 2001, pp Page 34 cites “Low-Prep Differentiation” & “High –Prep Differentiation”
5Concept Map Differentiation of Instruction is a teacher’s response to learners’ needsguided by general principles of differentiation, such asteachers & students collaborating in learningclarity of learning goalsongoing assessment & adjustmentrespectfultasksflexiblegroupingTeachers can differentiatecontentprocessproductaccording toreadinessinterestslearningprofile
6Some Principles of a Differentiated Classroom The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences.Assessment and instruction are inseparable.The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to students’ readiness, interests, and learning profile.All students participate in respectful work.Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.
7Acceleration aka Accelerated Instruction: 1: that which refers to educational strategies which provide opportunities for students to more rapidly achieve educational goals—CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL) (Participation per Board Policy: based on individually identified needs and is designed on a case-by-case basis per approval of Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum & Instruction; Examples per Board Policy : grade skipping, dual enrollment, early graduation, curriculum compacting, telescoping curriculum, elective system, subject matter acceleration, individually paced instruction, distance learning 2: that which provides for rapid achievement of educational goals and can be within a grade level curriculum (teacher decision) or across grade level curricula (collaborative decision per CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL)) Agendas: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for a personalized list of tasks that a particular student must complete in a specified time as developed by the teacher to last two to three weeks (usually students can determine the order in which they will complete the agenda during a particular time in the day set aside as “agenda time”)Anchoring activity: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for meaningful ongoing activities to which students automatically move when they have completed an assigned task; can occur throughout a unit, a six-weeks period, or longerAssessment: 1: collecting data to better understand the current knowledge (facts), understandings (principles and concepts), and skills of students 2: collecting data to better understand the readiness (prior mastery of knowledge/understandings/skills), interests (a student’s curiosity or passion –what “hooks” learners in wanting to know, understand, or do more), and learning profiles (preferred learning styles or intelligences) of students 3: an ongoing means of understanding how to better modify tomorrow’s instruction (Tomlinson) 4: an inseparable part of instructionAuthentic Assessment: collecting data to better understand the collective abilities of a student by presenting real-world challenges that require the application of relevant knowledge, understandings, and skillsDefinitions
8Challenging work: assignments or tasks that are slightly beyond the student’s comfort zone, i.e., “zone of proximal development”Choice Boards: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for changing assignments which are placed in permanent “pockets” of the board; the teachers asks a student to select from a particular row [of the board], thus targeting work toward student need and at the same time allowing for student choiceCompacting: 1: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides a three-step process which (a) assesses what a student knows about material to be studied and what the student still needs to master, (b) plans for learning what is not known and excuses student from what is known, and (c) plans for freed-up time to be spent in enriched or accelerated study 2: the student is given reduced amounts of introductory activities, drill, review, and so on such that the time saved may be used to move faster through the curriculum—CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL) 3: also a strategy for accelerated instruction to be determined on a case-by-case basis—CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL) Complex instruction: a strategy for differentiating instruction that deals with the sorts of academic ranges that frequently exist in classrooms that are academically, culturally, and linguistically heterogeneous (Cohen, 1994); complex instruction tasks a) require students to work together in small groups, b) are designed to draw upon the intellectual strengths of each student in the group, c) are open ended, d) are intrinsically interesting to students, e) are uncertain, f) involve real objects, g) provide materials and instructions in multiple languages (if needed), h) integrate reading and writing in ways that make them an important means to accomplishing a desirable goal, i) draw upon multiple intelligences in a real-world way, j) use multimedia, k) require many different talents in order to be completed adequately (An effective complex instruction task does not have a single right answer, does not reflect low-level thinking, does not involve simple memorization of routine learning.)Content: 1: what a student should know, understand, and be able to do as a result of a given unit of instruction, subject, or course 2: in differentiating instruction, the teacher selects levels of content after diagnosing student readiness
9Cubing: 1: a strategy for differentiating instruction that is based on student readiness (prior mastery of knowledge, understandings, and skills) and interest (what “hooks” the student in wanting to know, understand, or do more) 2: each six-sided cube carries instructions like “Describe—What is it?” / “Compare—What is similar to and different from?” / “Associate—What does it make you think of?” / “Analyze—How did it come about?” / “Apply it—How is it used? What might resolve this issue?” / “Argue for or against.” ( Possible Uses : a. introduce new concepts, b. build interest in a new concept, c. informally assess students, d. help students see relevance of a concept, e. review concepts, and f. help students think creatively about concepts) Differentiation aka Differentiated Instruction: 1: that which recognizes a common body of knowledge and skills for students to master [equity], but takes varying routes for each student to gain mastery of the intended curriculum in an optimal manner [excellence]—CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL) 2: that which plans and carries out varied approaches to content (what students learn), process (how students learn), and product (how students demonstrate what they’ve learned) in anticipation of and response to student differences in readiness (prior mastery of knowledge, understandings, and skills), interest (a student’s curiosity or passion –what “hooks” learners in wanting to know, understand, or do more), and learning profile (how the student prefers to learn) 3: a teaching philosophy and mindset that has a teacher acting responsively to a learner’s needs, i.e., “meeting the student where he/she enters the classroom” Enrichment: providing instructional materials and activities as an extension of the regular classroom materialEntry points: a strategy for addressing varied intelligence profiles (Gardner, 1991,1993); a student may explore a given topic through as many as five avenues or entry points, such as a) narrational [presenting a story or narrative about the topic or concept in question], b) logical-quantitative [using numbers or deductive/scientific approaches to the topic or question], c) foundational [examining the philosophy and vocabulary that undergird the topic or concept], d) aesthetic [focusing on the sensory features of the topic or concept], and e) experiential [using a hands-on approach where the student deals directly with materials that represent the topic or concept
10Equalizer: 1: a guide for planning differentiated lessons similar to using the equalizer buttons on a stereo or CD player as the teacher takes into account various student needs regarding structure, pace, complexity, cognitive level, etc. (See Tomlinson, C.A. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, 2 nd Ed., 2001, ASCD, p. 47.) 2: “Foundational to Transformational” / “Concrete to Abstract” / “Simple to Complex” / “Single Facet to Multiple Facets” / “Small Leap to Great Leap” / “More Structured to More Open” / “Less Independence to Greater Independence” / “Slow to Quick” (See Tomlinson above.) Flexible grouping: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for students to be a part of many different groups based on the match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning profileFormative Assessment: (“Keeping Track & Checking Up” or “Can You Hear Me Now?”) 1: a process of accumulating information about a student’s progress throughout a unit of instruction to help make “mid-course” corrections that will improve the student’s knowledge, understandings, and/or skills (i.e., achievement levels) 2 : allows teachers to depict a student’s life as a learner, provide “early warning” signals and regular feedback (e.g., formative test, peer evaluation, 3-minute pause, observation, talkaround, questioning, exit card, portfolio check, quiz, journal entry, self-evaluation, etc.)4MAT: a complex approach that focuses teacher response to student learning profile based on several personality and learning inventories which hypothesize that students have one of four learning preferences by which teachers plan and deliver instruction for a given unit (i.e., Type 1: Innovative Learners—primarily interested in personal meaning / Type 2: Analytic Learners—primarily interested in acquiring facts in order to deepen their understanding of concepts and processes / Type 3: Common Sense Learners—primarily interested in how things work; they want to “get in and try it” / Type 4: Dynamic Learners—primarily interested in self-directed discovery)Group investigation: this approach places students in the active role of solving problems. The teacher presents students with a complex problem. Students must seek additional information, define the problem, locate and appropriately use valid resources, make decisions about solutions, pose a solution, communicate that solutions to others, and assess the solution’s effectiveness. This strategy offers an opportunity to address readiness, interest, and learning profile.
11High-Level Questioning: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for presentation of questions which draw on advanced levels of information, requires leaps of understanding, and challenges the thinking of all students ( Guidelines : a. require all learners to think at high levels, b. require students to defend answers, c. use open-ended questions, d. use Bloom’s Taxonomy to create various levels of questions, and e. differentiate questions as appropriate, keeping sight of the need for all learners to be questioned at high levels) Independent Study/Independent Project: 1: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for a process by which student and teacher identify problems or topics of interest to the student with an agreed upon method of investigation ( Guidelines: a. builds on student interest, b. satisfies curiosity, c. requires planning and research at advanced levels, d. encourages independence, e. highly motivating, f. allows in-depth work on topics, and g. provides opportunities for students to work with complex and abstract ideas) 2: a process by which the student will demonstrate his/her ability to apply knowledge (facts), understandings (concepts and principles), and skills relative to a topic or problem Interest: a student’s curiosity or passionLearning Centers/Stations: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for “centers” or “stations” or collections of materials that learners use to explore topics or practice skills (tasks can be adjusted to readiness, interest, or learning profile). Centers can be “stations” or collections of materials learners use to explore topics or practice skills. Teachers can adjust learning center tasks for readiness levels or learning styles of different students.Learning Contracts: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for an agreement between student and teacher which can take many forms obligating the student to the performance of work according to agreed-upon specifications, i.e. , what will be learned, how it will be learned, amount of time for learning, and how the work will be evaluatedLearning profile: a student’s preferred manner for working or learningMultiple Intelligences: 1: different ways to demonstrate intellectual ability as conceived by researcher Howard Gardner (Visual/Spatial; Verbal/Linguistic; Logical/Mathematical; Bodily/Kinesthetic; Musical/Rhythmic ; Interpersonal; Intrapersonal; Naturalist) 2: means by which teachers address interest and learning profile of students
12Orbitals: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for independent investigations that revolve around some facet of curriculum, generally of three to six weeks in durationPortfolios: collections of student work which help students set appropriate learning goals and evaluate their growth (also help teachers and parents reflect on student growth over time; focus on readiness, interests, and learning profile)Preassessment (“Finding Out”): any method, strategy, or process used to determine a student’s current level of readiness (prior mastery of knowledge, understandings, and skills) or interest (what “hooks” the student in wanting to know, understand, or do more) which allows the teacher to meet students "where they are" (Examples: pre-test, inventory, KWL, checklist, observation, self-evaluation, questioning, etc.) Process: in differentiating instruction, the opportunity for students to make sense of the content; a teacher selects activities based on student readiness, interest, and/or learning profile; (An effective activity has a clearly defined instructional purpose, focuses on one key understanding, causes students to use a key skill or to work with key ideas, ensures that students will have to understand the idea, helps students relate new understandings and skills to previous ones, and matches the student’s level of readiness.)Product: in differentiating instruction, how students demonstrate what they’ve learnedRAFT assignments: a strategy for differentiating instruction that helps students understand an audience of fellow writers, students, citizens, characters, etc.; RAFT, an acronym that stands for Role (of the writer), Audience, Format, and Topic (Example: Role = battery; Audience = loose wire; Format = a newspaper article; Topic = man has shocking experience)
13Readiness: 1: in differentiating instruction, ascertaining the student’s prior mastery of knowledge (facts), understandings (concepts and principles), and skills relative to a unit of instruction, subject, or course 2: how well a student’s knowledge, understandings, and skills match a topic or task “Respectful” tasks: those that are interesting and engaging for every learner and which provide equal access to essential knowledge, understandings, and skills; neither boring nor frustratingScaffolding: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides the support needed for a student to succeed in challenging work; planning student work and presenting materials from simple to complex in such a way as to build student mastery and, thus, confidenceSummative Assessment (“Making Sure”): a means to determine a student’s mastery of knowledge (facts), understandings (concepts and principles), and skills used for the purpose of a final grade, decision, or report that causes teachers to align formative and preassessments with the “end in mind” (Examples: unit test, benchmark test, performance task, product/exhibit, demonstration, portfolio review, etc.)Tiered instruction: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for the use of varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth.
14Flexible Grouping Options By . . .ReadinessInterestLearning profileFlexible Grouping OptionsBy . . .Group Make Up (student similarities or dissimilarities, size, variance)By . . .Teacher choiceStudent choiceRandom
15Some Ideas for Differentiating Instruction READINESSVaried texts by reading levelVaried supplementary materials by reading levelVaried scaffolding (reading, writing, research, technology)Flexible time useLearning contractsVaried graphic organizersCompactingTiered or scaffolded assessmentSmall-group instructionHomework optionsINTERESTTopic (i.e., photography, poetry, life science, mathematics, etc.)Model of Expression (i.e., oral, written, designed/built, artistic, abstract, community service, etc.)LEARNING PROFILEGroup orientation (i.e., independent, group, adult)Cognitive style (i.e., whole-to-part/part-to-whole, concrete/abstract, oral/visual, etc.)Learning environment (i.e., quiet/noise, warm/cool, still/mobile, etc.)Intelligence preference (i.e., analytic, practical, creative, verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, etc.)
16Four Steps to Better Lessons Step One: HOOKHow am I going to make the task appealing inviting and intriguing to my students?Step Two: FOCUSDoes the task absolutely and with no ambiguity call on students to grapple with one or more of the key understandings and skills of the unit?Step Three: RATCHETIs the task crafted at very high levels of thought and production for the students who will perform it? Are you confident it will stretch them in use of information, critical and creative thinking, reflection on their thinking, skill and accuracy, research, insight, or other areas valuable in this effort?Step Four: TIGHTENAre the directions written in such a way that the students cannot take the “low road” or the easy way out with their work? Are they written to direct students to the “high road” of the quest for quality in work and thought?4 Steps to Better Lessons
17Beliefs on which differentiation is based: Students who are the same age differ in their readiness to learn, their interests, their styles of learning, their experiences, and their life circumstances.Differences in students are significant enough to make a major impact on what students need to learn, the pace at which they need to learn it, and the support they need from teachers and others to learn it well.Students will learn best when supportive adults push them slightly beyond where they can work without assistance.Students will learn best when they can make a connection between the curriculum and their interests and life experiences.Students will learn best when learning opportunities are natural.Students are more effective learners when classrooms and schools create a sense of community in which students feel significant and respected.The central job of schools is to maximize the capacity of each student.(Source: “Reconcilable Differences: Standards-Based Teaching and Differentiation,” by C. Tomlinson, September 2000, Educational Leadership, 58(1), pp. 6-11)
18Low-Prep/High-Prep Differentiation Low prep differentiationChoices of booksHomework optionsUse of reading buddiesVaried journal promptsOrbitalsVaried pacing with anchor optionsStudent-teacher goal settingWork alone/togetherWhole-to-part explanationsFlexible seatingVaried computer programsDesign-A-dayVaried supplementary materialsOptions for varied modes of expressionVarying scaffolding on same organizerLet’s Make a Deal projectsComputer mentorsThink-pair-share by readiness, interests, learning profileUse of collaboration, independence, and cooperationOpen-ended activitiesMiniworkshops to reteach or extend skillsJigsawNegotiated criteriaExplorations by interestGames to practice mastery of information and skillMultiple levels of questionsHigh prep differentiationTiered activities and labsTiered productsIndependent studiesMultiple textsAlternative assessmentsLearning contracts4-MATMultiple-intelligence optionsCompactingSpelling by readinessEntry pointsVarying organizersLectures coupled with graphic organizersCommunity mentorshipsInterest groupsTiered centersInterest centersPersonal agendasLiterature circlesStationsComplex instructionGroup investigationTape-recorded materialsTeams, games, and tournamentsChoice boardsThink-Tac-ToeSimulationsProblem-based learningGraduated rubricsFlexible reading formatsStudent-centered writing formatsLow-Prep/High-Prep Differentiation
19Lesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 1 of 3 Use this checklist by selecting one or more areas of planning each week or month (not all six) on which to focus.1. I’m clear on what I want the student toknow (facts, information)understand (principles, generalizations, ideas)be able to do as a result of this learning experience2. In deciding content, I’ve thought about and selectedalternate sources/resourcesvaried support systems (reading buddies, tapes, digests, direct instruction groups, organizers, extendersvaried pacing plans3. I’ve pre-assessed student readiness tomake appropriate content and/or activity assignmentsget a picture of understanding and skill vs. facts onlyfocus the lesson squarely on what students should know, understand, and be able to do4. As I assign students to groups or tasks, I’ve made certainstudent group assignments vary from recent onesstudents are encouraged to "work up"if appropriate, provisions are made for students who need or prefer to work alonegroup size matches student needLesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 1 of 3
20Lesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 3 of 3 6. When creating assignments for differentiated products, I’ve made certain theyvary along a continuum of Bloom’s taxonomy based on student readinessrequire all students to use key concepts, generalizations, ideas, and skills to solve problems, extend understandings, and/or create meaningful productsmaximize student choice within parameters necessary to demonstrate essential understandings and skillsinclude a core of clear and appropriately challenging expectations for the content of the product (what understandings and skills it must demonstrate, what resources, must be used); processes involved in production (planning, goal-setting, time line use, process log, self-evaluation, drafts, etc.); and production requirements for the product (rubric for criteria and levels of quality)provide for formative evaluation and modification of the productprovide for summative evaluation by teacher, student, peers and/or othersinvolve and inform parents as appropriateLesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 3 of 3
21Lesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 2 of 3 5. As I create differentiated activities, I’ve made certainall of them call for high-level thinkingall appear about equally interesting to my learnersif readiness based, they vary along a continuum of Bloom’s taxonomyif interest based, students have choices about how to apply skills and understandings or how to express themvaried modes of learning opportunities accommodate varied learning profileseach activity is squarely focused on one, or a very few, key concepts and/or generalizationsstudent choice is maximized within my parameters needed for focus and growthappropriate skills have been integrated into the activity requirementsexpectations for high-quality task completion are clear for all studentsI have a plan for gathering ongoing assessment data from the activityI have a means for bringing closure and clarity to the tasksLesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 2 of 3
22Checklist for Observing Differentiated Instruction Observation ChecklistThere is evidence that the CISD curriculum is being taught.I can identify the specific unit of instruction being addressed in this lesson.There is evidence that a diagnosis of student needs has taken placePer readinessPer interestsPer learning profileI see flexible grouping at work in this lesson.If not, does whole-group instruction seem to be the most optimal method available for teaching this particular content?I should return throughout this week to monitor employment of flexible grouping.I see the provision of “respectful tasks” for students (i.e., those that neither bore nor over tax the learner.I see evidence of ongoing monitoring of how the lesson is going.I see evidence that the lesson or unit has been, or is to be adjusted, based on the teacher’s monitoring of student mastery of knowledge (facts), understandings (concepts, principles, generalizations), and/or skills.If not, I should engage the teacher in dialogue about this at some point and/or return for such evidence in the near future.I see evidence of differentiation incontentprocessproductChecklist for Observing Differentiated Instruction
23I see that the teacher is using one or more of the following (list not inclusive): Low-Prep Differentiation StrategiesChoice of booksHomework optionsUse of reading buddiesVaried journal promptsOrbitalsVaried pacing w/anchor optionsStudent-teacher goal settingWork alone/togetherWhole-to-part explanationsFlexible seatingVaried computer programsDesign-A-DayVaried supplementary materialsVarying scaffolding on same organizerLet’s Make a Deal projectsComputer mentorsThink-pair-share by readiness, interest, learning profileOpen-ended activitiesJigsawMultiple levels of questionsEtc.High-Prep Differentiation StrategiesTiered activities, labs, or productsRAFT assignmentsIndependent study/projectsMultiple textsAlternative assessmentsLearning contracts4MATMultiple-intelligence optionsCompactingEntry pointsVarying organizersLiterature circlesPersonal agendasStationsGroup investigationChoice boardsSimulationsProblem-based learningGraduated rubricsStudent-centered writing formatsEtc.
24A Comparison Traditional Classroom Student differences are masked or acted upon when problematic.Assessment is most common at the end of learning to see “who got it.”A relatively narrow sense of intelligence prevails.A single definition of excellence exists.Student interest is infrequently tapped.Relatively few learning profile options are taken into account.Whole class instruction dominates.Coverage of texts and/or curriculum guides drives instruction.Mastery of facts and skills-out-of-context are the focus of learning.Single option assignments are the norm.Time is relatively inflexible.A single text prevails.Single interpretations of ideas and events may be sought.The teacher directs student behavior.The teacher solves problems.The teacher provides whole class standards for grading.A single form of assessment is often used.Differentiated ClassroomStudent differences are studied as a basis for planning.Assessment is on-going and diagnostic to understand how to make instruction more responsive to learner need.Focus on multiple forms of intelligences is evident.Excellence is defined in large measure by individual growth from a starting point.Students are frequently guided in making interest-based learning choices.Many learning profile options are provided.Many instructional arrangements are used.Student readiness, interest, and learning profile shape instruction.Use of essential skills to make sense of/understand key concepts and principles is the focus of learning.Multi-option assignments are frequently used.Time is used flexibly in accordance with student need.Multiple materials are provided.Multiple perspectives on ideas and events are routinely sought.The teacher facilitates students’ skills at becoming more self-reliant learners.Students help one another and the teacher solve problems.Students work with teacher to establish both whole class and individual learning goals.Students are assessed in multiple ways.A Comparison
25Range of Activities in a Differentiated Classroom Classroom Instruction ArrangementsWhole Class ActivitiesPre-assessment(readiness/interest)PlanningWrap-up ofexplorationsIntroductionof conceptsSharingSmall Group Activities (pairs, triads, quads)Directed readingSense-makingTeaching skillsRange of Activities in a Differentiated ClassroomInvestigationPlanningIndividualized ActivitiesPractice & applyskillsInterestcentersIndependentstudyCompactingSense-makingHomeworkProductsTestingStudent-Teacher ConferencesAssessmentGuidanceTailoring & planningEvaluation
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27Mrs. Robin Snyder, President Mrs. Becky Miltenberger, Vice-President BOARD OF TRUSTEESMrs. Robin Snyder, PresidentMrs. Becky Miltenberger, Vice-PresidentMrs. Darla Reed, SecretaryMr. Dale CraneMrs. Deborah FrazierMr. Steve LakinMrs. Erin Shoupp EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP TEAMGary S. Mathews, Ph.D., SuperintendentJan Morgan, Ph.D., Asst. Superintendent for Curriculum & InstructionJames R. Schiele, Asst. Superintendent for Operations & Budget ManagementHarry Ingalls, Chief Technology OfficerDerek Citty, Ed.D., Chief Personnel OfficerDiane Frost, Ph.D., Executive Director for Instructional ServicesJulie Thannum, Director of Communications PRINCIPALSDaniel Presley, Ed.D., Carroll Senior High SchoolRobin Ryan, Carroll High SchoolBrad Hunt, Carroll Middle SchoolJerry Hollingsworth, Dawson Middle SchoolSarah Jane Wright, Durham Intermediate SchoolMark Terry, Eubanks Intermediate SchoolStacy Wagnon, Carroll Elementary SchoolElizabeth L. McIlvain, Ed.D., Durham Elementary SchoolJane Cousins, Johnson Elementary SchoolAndra Barton, Old Union Elementary SchoolMeryl Babcock, Rockenbaugh Elementary School