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Carroll Independent School District’s compiled by Nancy Rindone, Ed.D. Director of Staff Development 2003-2004 The information in this booklet is used.

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Presentation on theme: "Carroll Independent School District’s compiled by Nancy Rindone, Ed.D. Director of Staff Development 2003-2004 The information in this booklet is used."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carroll Independent School District’s compiled by Nancy Rindone, Ed.D. Director of Staff Development The information in this booklet is used with permission of Carol Tomlinson, Ed.D. mini-guide to

2 Carroll Independent School District Vision WE envision an individualized and personalized education for each student. Mission WE are committed to those actions that bring about an individualized and personalized education that challenges each student. Philosophical Underpinnings The Board of Trustees believes it is important to encourage, support, and assist each student in his or her academic development. Where ability is concerned, equality consists of providing equally well for all kinds and levels of individual differences. That students differ may be inconvenient, but it is inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to students. In recognition of the diverse needs of students, we support differentiation and acceleration appropriate to student needs as determined through assessment. By "individualized" education, we mean those teaching practices that provide a basis for assessing where the student is relative to a unit of instruction, deliver instruction in a differentiated manner so as to appropriately remediate, enrich, and/or accelerate, while holding standards at grade level for all students. By "personalized" education, we mean those classroom and school practices that recognize the uniqueness of each student learner and thus provide for adequate tutorial and guidance and counseling suited to develop the whole person in mind, body, and spirit. By "challenging" education, we mean those practices that stretch all learners to become all they can be academically, learning optimally (or to their full potential) in language arts, mathematics, social studies, and science in particular, and in all subject matter generally. AE (LOCAL)

3 CISD Timeline for Differentiation  ’03-’04: Understand & Practice 1. a common language of CISD curriculum and differentiation 2. a deep understanding of CISD curriculum & differentiation 3. some practice of “low-prep/high- prep” D.I. Strategies in classrooms 4. some classroom observation of D.I. Lessons 5. collect/reflect on district/school/classroom progress  ’04-’05: Understand & Practice (See cycle of strategies, 1-5, above.)  Summer ’05: Policy Development (e.g., preassessment for units of instruction, district-level benchmark assessments, Instructional Management Systems, staff development, classroom observations, teacher evaluation, grading & reporting, parent involvement, etc.)  ’05-’06: Formally implement Differentiated Instruction in CISD Classrooms

4 CISD Benchmark for Teacher “Practice” of Differentiated Instruction One approach to becoming comfortable with differentiation in a way that doesn’t overtake your life is to Year One: select a few low-prep strategies you’re comfortable with + select one high-prep strategy per unit or semester to add to your repertoire Year Two: hone the strategies from Year One + add one or two more low and high prep strategies Year Three & after: “In [the above] cumulative way, you can work your way to a highly differentiated classroom in four or five years, without feeling absolutely frenzied along the way.” Source: Tomlinson, How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, ASCD, 2 nd Ed., 2001, pp Page 34 cites “Low-Prep Differentiation” & “High –Prep Differentiation”

5 Differentiation of Instruction is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs guided by general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping ongoing assessment & adjustment Teachers can differentiate processproduct content interestslearning profile readiness clarity of learning goals teachers & students collaborating in learning according to Concept Map

6 The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter. The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences. Assessment and instruction are inseparable. The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to students’ readiness, interests, and learning profile. All students participate in respectful work. Students and teachers are collaborators in learning. Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success. Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.

7 Acceleration aka Accelerated Instruction: 1: that which refers to educational strategies which provide opportunities for students to more rapidly achieve educational goals—CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL) (Participation per Board Policy: based on individually identified needs and is designed on a case-by-case basis per approval of Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum & Instruction; Examples per Board Policy : grade skipping, dual enrollment, early graduation, curriculum compacting, telescoping curriculum, elective system, subject matter acceleration, individually paced instruction, distance learning 2: that which provides for rapid achievement of educational goals and can be within a grade level curriculum (teacher decision) or across grade level curricula (collaborative decision per CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL)) Agendas: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for a personalized list of tasks that a particular student must complete in a specified time as developed by the teacher to last two to three weeks (usually students can determine the order in which they will complete the agenda during a particular time in the day set aside as “agenda time”) Anchoring activity: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for meaningful ongoing activities to which students automatically move when they have completed an assigned task; can occur throughout a unit, a six-weeks period, or longer Assessment: 1: collecting data to better understand the current knowledge (facts), understandings (principles and concepts), and skills of students 2: collecting data to better understand the readiness (prior mastery of knowledge/understandings/skills), interests (a student’s curiosity or passion –what “hooks” learners in wanting to know, understand, or do more), and learning profiles (preferred learning styles or intelligences) of students 3: an ongoing means of understanding how to better modify tomorrow’s instruction (Tomlinson) 4: an inseparable part of instruction Authentic Assessment: collecting data to better understand the collective abilities of a student by presenting real-world challenges that require the application of relevant knowledge, understandings, and skills Definitions

8 Challenging work: assignments or tasks that are slightly beyond the student’s comfort zone, i.e., “zone of proximal development” Choice Boards: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for changing assignments which are placed in permanent “pockets” of the board; the teachers asks a student to select from a particular row [of the board], thus targeting work toward student need and at the same time allowing for student choice Compacting: 1: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides a three-step process which (a) assesses what a student knows about material to be studied and what the student still needs to master, (b) plans for learning what is not known and excuses student from what is known, and (c) plans for freed-up time to be spent in enriched or accelerated study 2: the student is given reduced amounts of introductory activities, drill, review, and so on such that the time saved may be used to move faster through the curriculum—CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL) 3: also a strategy for accelerated instruction to be determined on a case-by-case basis—CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL) Complex instruction: a strategy for differentiating instruction that deals with the sorts of academic ranges that frequently exist in classrooms that are academically, culturally, and linguistically heterogeneous (Cohen, 1994); complex instruction tasks a) require students to work together in small groups, b) are designed to draw upon the intellectual strengths of each student in the group, c) are open ended, d) are intrinsically interesting to students, e) are uncertain, f) involve real objects, g) provide materials and instructions in multiple languages (if needed), h) integrate reading and writing in ways that make them an important means to accomplishing a desirable goal, i) draw upon multiple intelligences in a real- world way, j) use multimedia, k) require many different talents in order to be completed adequately (An effective complex instruction task does not have a single right answer, does not reflect low-level thinking, does not involve simple memorization of routine learning.) Content: 1: what a student should know, understand, and be able to do as a result of a given unit of instruction, subject, or course 2: in differentiating instruction, the teacher selects levels of content after diagnosing student readiness

9 Cubing: 1: a strategy for differentiating instruction that is based on student readiness (prior mastery of knowledge, understandings, and skills) and interest (what “hooks” the student in wanting to know, understand, or do more) 2: each six-sided cube carries instructions like “Describe—What is it?” / “Compare—What is similar to and different from?” / “Associate—What does it make you think of?” / “Analyze—How did it come about?” / “Apply it—How is it used? What might resolve this issue?” / “Argue for or against.” ( Possible Uses : a. introduce new concepts, b. build interest in a new concept, c. informally assess students, d. help students see relevance of a concept, e. review concepts, and f. help students think creatively about concepts) Differentiation aka Differentiated Instruction: 1: that which recognizes a common body of knowledge and skills for students to master [equity], but takes varying routes for each student to gain mastery of the intended curriculum in an optimal manner [excellence]—CISD Board Policy AE (LOCAL) 2: that which plans and carries out varied approaches to content (what students learn), process (how students learn), and product (how students demonstrate what they’ve learned) in anticipation of and response to student differences in readiness (prior mastery of knowledge, understandings, and skills), interest (a student’s curiosity or passion –what “hooks” learners in wanting to know, understand, or do more), and learning profile (how the student prefers to learn) 3: a teaching philosophy and mindset that has a teacher acting responsively to a learner’s needs, i.e., “meeting the student where he/she enters the classroom” Enrichment: providing instructional materials and activities as an extension of the regular classroom material Entry points: a strategy for addressing varied intelligence profiles (Gardner, 1991,1993); a student may explore a given topic through as many as five avenues or entry points, such as a) narrational [presenting a story or narrative about the topic or concept in question], b) logical-quantitative [using numbers or deductive/scientific approaches to the topic or question], c) foundational [examining the philosophy and vocabulary that undergird the topic or concept], d) aesthetic [focusing on the sensory features of the topic or concept], and e) experiential [using a hands-on approach where the student deals directly with materials that represent the topic or concept

10 Equalizer: 1: a guide for planning differentiated lessons similar to using the equalizer buttons on a stereo or CD player as the teacher takes into account various student needs regarding structure, pace, complexity, cognitive level, etc. (See Tomlinson, C.A. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, 2 nd Ed., 2001, ASCD, p. 47.) 2: “Foundational to Transformational” / “Concrete to Abstract” / “Simple to Complex” / “Single Facet to Multiple Facets” / “Small Leap to Great Leap” / “More Structured to More Open” / “Less Independence to Greater Independence” / “Slow to Quick” (See Tomlinson above.) Flexible grouping: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for students to be a part of many different groups based on the match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning profile Formative Assessment: (“Keeping Track & Checking Up” or “Can You Hear Me Now?”) 1: a process of accumulating information about a student’s progress throughout a unit of instruction to help make “mid-course” corrections that will improve the student’s knowledge, understandings, and/or skills (i.e., achievement levels) 2 : allows teachers to depict a student’s life as a learner, provide “early warning” signals and regular feedback (e.g., formative test, peer evaluation, 3-minute pause, observation, talkaround, questioning, exit card, portfolio check, quiz, journal entry, self-evaluation, etc.) 4MAT: a complex approach that focuses teacher response to student learning profile based on several personality and learning inventories which hypothesize that students have one of four learning preferences by which teachers plan and deliver instruction for a given unit (i.e., Type 1: Innovative Learners—primarily interested in personal meaning / Type 2: Analytic Learners—primarily interested in acquiring facts in order to deepen their understanding of concepts and processes / Type 3: Common Sense Learners—primarily interested in how things work; they want to “get in and try it” / Type 4: Dynamic Learners—primarily interested in self-directed discovery) Group investigation: this approach places students in the active role of solving problems. The teacher presents students with a complex problem. Students must seek additional information, define the problem, locate and appropriately use valid resources, make decisions about solutions, pose a solution, communicate that solutions to others, and assess the solution’s effectiveness. This strategy offers an opportunity to address readiness, interest, and learning profile.

11 High-Level Questioning: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for presentation of questions which draw on advanced levels of information, requires leaps of understanding, and challenges the thinking of all students ( Guidelines : a. require all learners to think at high levels, b. require students to defend answers, c. use open-ended questions, d. use Bloom’s Taxonomy to create various levels of questions, and e. differentiate questions as appropriate, keeping sight of the need for all learners to be questioned at high levels) Independent Study/Independent Project: 1: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for a process by which student and teacher identify problems or topics of interest to the student with an agreed upon method of investigation ( Guidelines: a. builds on student interest, b. satisfies curiosity, c. requires planning and research at advanced levels, d. encourages independence, e. highly motivating, f. allows in-depth work on topics, and g. provides opportunities for students to work with complex and abstract ideas) 2: a process by which the student will demonstrate his/her ability to apply knowledge (facts), understandings (concepts and principles), and skills relative to a topic or problem Interest: a student’s curiosity or passion Learning Centers/Stations: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for “centers” or “stations” or collections of materials that learners use to explore topics or practice skills (tasks can be adjusted to readiness, interest, or learning profile). Centers can be “stations” or collections of materials learners use to explore topics or practice skills. Teachers can adjust learning center tasks for readiness levels or learning styles of different students. Learning Contracts: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for an agreement between student and teacher which can take many forms obligating the student to the performance of work according to agreed-upon specifications, i.e., what will be learned, how it will be learned, amount of time for learning, and how the work will be evaluated Learning profile: a student’s preferred manner for working or learning Multiple Intelligences: 1: different ways to demonstrate intellectual ability as conceived by researcher Howard Gardner (Visual/Spatial; Verbal/Linguistic; Logical/Mathematical; Bodily/Kinesthetic; Musical/Rhythmic ; Interpersonal; Intrapersonal; Naturalist) 2: means by which teachers address interest and learning profile of students

12 Orbitals: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for independent investigations that revolve around some facet of curriculum, generally of three to six weeks in duration Portfolios: collections of student work which help students set appropriate learning goals and evaluate their growth (also help teachers and parents reflect on student growth over time; focus on readiness, interests, and learning profile) Preassessment (“Finding Out”): any method, strategy, or process used to determine a student’s current level of readiness (prior mastery of knowledge, understandings, and skills) or interest (what “hooks” the student in wanting to know, understand, or do more) which allows the teacher to meet students "where they are" (Examples: pre-test, inventory, KWL, checklist, observation, self-evaluation, questioning, etc.) Process: in differentiating instruction, the opportunity for students to make sense of the content; a teacher selects activities based on student readiness, interest, and/or learning profile; (An effective activity has a clearly defined instructional purpose, focuses on one key understanding, causes students to use a key skill or to work with key ideas, ensures that students will have to understand the idea, helps students relate new understandings and skills to previous ones, and matches the student’s level of readiness.) Product: in differentiating instruction, how students demonstrate what they’ve learned RAFT assignments: a strategy for differentiating instruction that helps students understand an audience of fellow writers, students, citizens, characters, etc.; RAFT, an acronym that stands for Role (of the writer), Audience, Format, and Topic (Example: Role = battery; Audience = loose wire; Format = a newspaper article; Topic = man has shocking experience)

13 Readiness: 1: in differentiating instruction, ascertaining the student’s prior mastery of knowledge (facts), understandings (concepts and principles), and skills relative to a unit of instruction, subject, or course 2: how well a student’s knowledge, understandings, and skills match a topic or task “Respectful” tasks: those that are interesting and engaging for every learner and which provide equal access to essential knowledge, understandings, and skills; neither boring nor frustrating Scaffolding: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides the support needed for a student to succeed in challenging work; planning student work and presenting materials from simple to complex in such a way as to build student mastery and, thus, confidence Summative Assessment (“Making Sure”): a means to determine a student’s mastery of knowledge (facts), understandings (concepts and principles), and skills used for the purpose of a final grade, decision, or report that causes teachers to align formative and preassessments with the “end in mind” (Examples: unit test, benchmark test, performance task, product/exhibit, demonstration, portfolio review, etc.) Tiered instruction: a strategy for differentiating instruction that provides for the use of varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth.

14 Flexible Grouping Options By... Readiness Interest Learning profile By... Group Make Up (student similarities or dissimilarities, size, variance) By... Teacher choice Student choice Random Flexible Grouping Options

15 Some Ideas for Differentiating Instruction READINESS –Varied texts by reading level –Varied supplementary materials by reading level –Varied scaffolding (reading, writing, research, technology) –Flexible time use –Learning contracts –Varied graphic organizers –Compacting –Tiered or scaffolded assessment –Small-group instruction –Homework options INTEREST –Topic (i.e., photography, poetry, life science, mathematics, etc.) –Model of Expression (i.e., oral, written, designed/built, artistic, abstract, community service, etc.) LEARNING PROFILE –Group orientation (i.e., independent, group, adult) –Cognitive style (i.e., whole-to-part/part-to-whole, concrete/abstract, oral/visual, etc.) –Learning environment (i.e., quiet/noise, warm/cool, still/mobile, etc.) –Intelligence preference (i.e., analytic, practical, creative, verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, etc.)

16 Four Steps to Better Lessons Step One: HOOK How am I going to make the task appealing inviting and intriguing to my students? Step Two: FOCUS Does the task absolutely and with no ambiguity call on students to grapple with one or more of the key understandings and skills of the unit? Step Three: RATCHET Is the task crafted at very high levels of thought and production for the students who will perform it? Are you confident it will stretch them in use of information, critical and creative thinking, reflection on their thinking, skill and accuracy, research, insight, or other areas valuable in this effort? Step Four: TIGHTEN Are the directions written in such a way that the students cannot take the “low road” or the easy way out with their work? Are they written to direct students to the “high road” of the quest for quality in work and thought? 4 Steps to Better Lessons

17 Beliefs on which differentiation is based: Students who are the same age differ in their readiness to learn, their interests, their styles of learning, their experiences, and their life circumstances. Differences in students are significant enough to make a major impact on what students need to learn, the pace at which they need to learn it, and the support they need from teachers and others to learn it well. Students will learn best when supportive adults push them slightly beyond where they can work without assistance. Students will learn best when they can make a connection between the curriculum and their interests and life experiences. Students will learn best when learning opportunities are natural. Students are more effective learners when classrooms and schools create a sense of community in which students feel significant and respected. The central job of schools is to maximize the capacity of each student. (Source: “Reconcilable Differences: Standards-Based Teaching and Differentiation,” by C. Tomlinson, September 2000, Educational Leadership, 58(1), pp. 6-11)

18 Low prep differentiation Choices of books Homework options Use of reading buddies Varied journal prompts Orbitals Varied pacing with anchor options Student-teacher goal setting Work alone/together Whole-to-part explanations Flexible seating Varied computer programs Design-A-day Varied supplementary materials Options for varied modes of expression Varying scaffolding on same organizer Let’s Make a Deal projects Computer mentors Think-pair-share by readiness, interests, learning profile Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation Open-ended activities Miniworkshops to reteach or extend skills Jigsaw Negotiated criteria Explorations by interest Games to practice mastery of information and skill Multiple levels of questions High prep differentiation Tiered activities and labs Tiered products Independent studies Multiple texts Alternative assessments Learning contracts 4-MAT Multiple-intelligence options Compacting Spelling by readiness Entry points Varying organizers Lectures coupled with graphic organizers Community mentorships Interest groups Tiered centers Interest centers Personal agendas Literature circles Stations Complex instruction Group investigation Tape-recorded materials Teams, games, and tournaments Choice boards Think-Tac-Toe Simulations Problem-based learning Graduated rubrics Flexible reading formats Student-centered writing formats Low-Prep/High-Prep Differentiation

19 Lesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 1 of 3 Use this checklist by selecting one or more areas of planning each week or month (not all six) on which to focus. 1. I’m clear on what I want the student to  know (facts, information)  understand (principles, generalizations, ideas)  be able to do as a result of this learning experience 2. In deciding content, I’ve thought about and selected  alternate sources/resources  varied support systems (reading buddies, tapes, digests, direct instruction groups, organizers, extenders  varied pacing plans 3. I’ve pre-assessed student readiness to  make appropriate content and/or activity assignments  get a picture of understanding and skill vs. facts only  focus the lesson squarely on what students should know, understand, and be able to do 4. As I assign students to groups or tasks, I’ve made certain  student group assignments vary from recent ones  students are encouraged to "work up"  if appropriate, provisions are made for students who need or prefer to work alone  group size matches student need

20 6. When creating assignments for differentiated products, I’ve made certain they  vary along a continuum of Bloom’s taxonomy based on student readiness  require all students to use key concepts, generalizations, ideas, and skills to solve problems, extend understandings, and/or create meaningful products  maximize student choice within parameters necessary to demonstrate essential understandings and skills  include a core of clear and appropriately challenging expectations for the content of the product (what understandings and skills it must demonstrate, what resources, must be used); processes involved in production (planning, goal-setting, time line use, process log, self-evaluation, drafts, etc.); and production requirements for the product (rubric for criteria and levels of quality)  provide for formative evaluation and modification of the product  provide for summative evaluation by teacher, student, peers and/or others  involve and inform parents as appropriate Lesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 3 of 3

21 5. As I create differentiated activities, I’ve made certain  all of them call for high-level thinking  all appear about equally interesting to my learners  if readiness based, they vary along a continuum of Bloom’s taxonomy  if interest based, students have choices about how to apply skills and understandings or how to express them  varied modes of learning opportunities accommodate varied learning profiles  each activity is squarely focused on one, or a very few, key concepts and/or generalizations  student choice is maximized within my parameters needed for focus and growth  appropriate skills have been integrated into the activity requirements  expectations for high-quality task completion are clear for all students  I have a plan for gathering ongoing assessment data from the activity  I have a means for bringing closure and clarity to the tasks Lesson Plan Checklist for Differentiation Page 2 of 3

22 Checklist for Observing Differentiated Instruction  There is evidence that the CISD curriculum is being taught.  I can identify the specific unit of instruction being addressed in this lesson.  There is evidence that a diagnosis of student needs has taken place  Per readiness  Per interests  Per learning profile  I see flexible grouping at work in this lesson.  If not, does whole-group instruction seem to be the most optimal method available for teaching this particular content?  I should return throughout this week to monitor employment of flexible grouping.  I see the provision of “respectful tasks” for students (i.e., those that neither bore nor over tax the learner.  I see evidence of ongoing monitoring of how the lesson is going.  I see evidence that the lesson or unit has been, or is to be adjusted, based on the teacher’s monitoring of student mastery of knowledge (facts), understandings (concepts, principles, generalizations), and/or skills.  If not, I should engage the teacher in dialogue about this at some point and/or return for such evidence in the near future.  I see evidence of differentiation in  content  process  product Observation Checklist

23 Low-Prep Differentiation Strategies  Choice of books  Homework options  Use of reading buddies  Varied journal prompts  Orbitals  Varied pacing w/anchor options  Student-teacher goal setting  Work alone/together  Whole-to-part explanations  Flexible seating  Varied computer programs  Design-A-Day  Varied supplementary materials  Varying scaffolding on same organizer  Let’s Make a Deal projects  Computer mentors  Think-pair-share by readiness, interest, learning profile  Open-ended activities  Jigsaw  Multiple levels of questions  Etc. High-Prep Differentiation Strategies  Tiered activities, labs, or products  RAFT assignments  Independent study/projects  Multiple texts  Alternative assessments  Learning contracts  4MAT  Multiple-intelligence options  Compacting  Entry points  Varying organizers  Literature circles  Personal agendas  Stations  Group investigation  Choice boards  Simulations  Problem-based learning  Graduated rubrics  Student-centered writing formats  Etc.  I see that the teacher is using one or more of the following (list not inclusive):

24 Traditional Classroom 1)Student differences are masked or acted upon when problematic. 2)Assessment is most common at the end of learning to see “who got it.” 3)A relatively narrow sense of intelligence prevails. 4)A single definition of excellence exists. 5)Student interest is infrequently tapped. 6)Relatively few learning profile options are taken into account. 7)Whole class instruction dominates. 8)Coverage of texts and/or curriculum guides drives instruction. 9)Mastery of facts and skills-out-of-context are the focus of learning. 10)Single option assignments are the norm. 11)Time is relatively inflexible. 12)A single text prevails. 13)Single interpretations of ideas and events may be sought. 14)The teacher directs student behavior. 15)The teacher solves problems. 16)The teacher provides whole class standards for grading. 17)A single form of assessment is often used. Differentiated Classroom 1)Student differences are studied as a basis for planning. 2)Assessment is on-going and diagnostic to understand how to make instruction more responsive to learner need. 3)Focus on multiple forms of intelligences is evident. 4)Excellence is defined in large measure by individual growth from a starting point. 5)Students are frequently guided in making interest- based learning choices. 6)Many learning profile options are provided. 7)Many instructional arrangements are used. 8)Student readiness, interest, and learning profile shape instruction. 9)Use of essential skills to make sense of/understand key concepts and principles is the focus of learning. 10)Multi-option assignments are frequently used. 11)Time is used flexibly in accordance with student need. 12)Multiple materials are provided. 13)Multiple perspectives on ideas and events are routinely sought. 14)The teacher facilitates students’ skills at becoming more self-reliant learners. 15)Students help one another and the teacher solve problems. 16)Students work with teacher to establish both whole class and individual learning goals. 17)Students are assessed in multiple ways. A Comparison

25 Classroom Instruction Arrangements Whole Class Activities Individualized Activities Small Group Activities (pairs, triads, quads) Student-Teacher Conferences Pre-assessment (readiness/interest) Introduction of concepts Planning Sharing Wrap-up of explorations Teaching skills Directed reading Planning Sense-makingInvestigation Sense-making Practice & apply skills Homework Compacting Products Interest centers Independent study Testing Tailoring & planning Guidance Evaluation Assessment Range of Activities in a Differentiated Classroom

26 References Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (2001). At work in the differentiated classroom. (video staff development set, Leslie Kiernan, Producer). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (2002). A visit to a differentiated classroom. (video staff development set, Leslie Kiernan, Producer). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1997). Differentiating instruction. Alexandria, VA: Authors. (video staff development set, Leslie Kiernan, Producer). Bateman, B. (1993). Learning disabilities: The changing landscape. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(1), Brimijoin, K., Marquissee, E. & Tomlinson,C. (2003), February). Using data to differentiate instruction. Educational Leadership 60(5), Cohen, E., & Benton, J. (1988). Making groupwork work. American Educator, 12(3)10-17, Cohen, E. (1994). Designing groupwork: Strategies for the heterogeneous classroom (2 nd ed.) New York: Teachers College Press. Cole, R. (1995). Educating everybody’s children: Diverse teaching strategies for diverse learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Gartin, B., Murdick, N., Imbeau, M., & Perner, D. (2002). Differentiating instruction for students with developmental disabilities in the general education classroom. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. Krumboltz., J., & Yeh, C. (1996, December). Competitive grading sabotages good teaching. Phil Delta Kappan, Lee, C., & Jackson,R. (1992). Faking it. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook. Maeda, B. (1994). The multi-age classroom: An inside look at one community of learners. Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press. MacCracken, M. (1986). Turnabout children. New York: Signet. Strachota, B. (1996). On their side: Helping children take charge of their learning. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Society for Children. Tomlinson, C. (1995). Deciding to differentiate instruction in middle school: One school’s journey. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, Tomlinson, C. (1996). Differentiating instruction for mixed-ability classrooms: A Professional inquiry kit. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. (1998, November). For integration and differentiation choose concepts over topics. Middle School Journal, 3-8. Tomlinson, Carol Ann (1999). The Differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. (1999, November). Mapping a route toward differentiated instruction. Educational Leadership, 57(1), Tomlinson, C., & Demirsky Allan, S. (2000). Leadership for differentiating schools & classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C., (2000, September). Reconcilable Differences: Standards-Based Teaching and Differentiation, Educational Leadership, 58(1), Tomlinson, C. (2001, March). Grading for success. Educational Leadership, Tomlinson, C. (2002, September). Invitations to learn. Educational Leadership, 60(1), Tomlinson, C. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms (2 nd Edition). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C., & Eidson, C. (2003). Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum, Grades 5-9. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). ASCD Summer Conference on Differentiating Instruction. Chicago, IL Weinbrenner, S. (1992). Teaching gifted kids in the regular classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Weinbrenner, S. (1996). Teaching kids with learning difficulties in the regular classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. (Provided by Carol Tomlinson, Ed.D. University of Virginia)

27 BOARD OF TRUSTEES Mrs. Robin Snyder, President Mrs. Becky Miltenberger, Vice-President Mrs. Darla Reed, Secretary Mr. Dale Crane Mrs. Deborah Frazier Mr. Steve Lakin Mrs. Erin Shoupp EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP TEAM Gary S. Mathews, Ph.D., Superintendent Jan Morgan, Ph.D., Asst. Superintendent for Curriculum & Instruction James R. Schiele, Asst. Superintendent for Operations & Budget Management Harry Ingalls, Chief Technology Officer Derek Citty, Ed.D., Chief Personnel Officer Diane Frost, Ph.D., Executive Director for Instructional Services Julie Thannum, Director of Communications PRINCIPALS Daniel Presley, Ed.D., Carroll Senior High School Robin Ryan, Carroll High School Brad Hunt, Carroll Middle School Jerry Hollingsworth, Dawson Middle School Sarah Jane Wright, Durham Intermediate School Mark Terry, Eubanks Intermediate School Stacy Wagnon, Carroll Elementary School Elizabeth L. McIlvain, Ed.D., Durham Elementary School Jane Cousins, Johnson Elementary School Andra Barton, Old Union Elementary School Meryl Babcock, Rockenbaugh Elementary School

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