Johann Von Goethe – German Philosopher. Joseph Hadyn – Classical Composer. Thomas Hobbes – Political Philosophy. Thomas Jefferson – American Statesman. Immanuel Kant – German Philosopher. John Locke – English Political Philosopher. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Thomas Paine – American Political Activist. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Swiss Political Philosopher. Adam Smith – Scottish Economist.
Imperialism, defined by The Dictionary of Human Geography, is "the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." Imperialism has been described as a primarily Western concept that employs "expansionist – capitalist and latterly communist – systems.“ Johnston, Ronald John (2000). The Dictionary of Human Geography (4th ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 375.
Because of the Enlightenment Era of the 18 th Century, many Western Societies were looking at issues like “Individual rights” instead of Absolutism or Imperialism. This kind of thinking eventually led to the French Revolution and the American War of Independence.
Writing in Quebec mirrored these individualist ideals – thus the idea of political and economic liberalism started to grow in Canada. The ideas proposed were things like democracy, individual freedoms, equality and the right to own private land (essentially the opposite of the seigneurie system).
After the American War of Independence (1775-1783) and the arrival of the British Loyalists in Canada, citizens started to ask for a legislative Assembly. The first Canadian Legislative Assembly was create din 1791 – it have very limited powers. The Assembly started asking for more power, which in turn led to the Rebellions of 1837-1838.
After the Rebellions, the Governor of Canada Lord Durham, wrote his famous recommendation to the King that the French should be assimilated into English culture. In 1840, Great Britain passed the Act of Union, an attempt to assimilated the French Canadians.
After the Treaty of Paris and the British Conquest, Quebec and the Canadian became another part of the very large British Empire. This Duality began as the Loyalists began settling in Canada and keeping their heritage and connection with the King of England.
The Beginning of a Dual Identity The French colonists, however, were worried about the future of their schools, their language and their cultural heritage (specifically their Religion!) As a result, journalist Ludger Duvernay set up the first French-Canadian “nationalist” association to promote French-Canadian Culture: it was called the St-Jean Baptiste Association (June 24 th 1834).
The Beginning of a Dual Identity The St-Jean Baptiste Association was responsible for the following: Adopting the maple leaf as the Canadian Symbol The creation of the national Hymn “O Canada” Erecting monuments in memory of French Canadians Founding the Montreal Chamber of Commerce
The Beginning of a Dual Identity French Canadian Nationalism had another big uprising during the Rebellions of 1837-1838. The Legislative Assembly was largely made up of French Canadians (because they were the majority) and they formed the Parti Patriote – demanding more control of the Colony’s finances. When the Crown refused their demands, fighting broke out in both Upper and Lower Canada.
The Beginning of a Dual Identity After the Rebellion, the head of the Colonial office, Lord Durham, was asked to present his report on the matter. Durham’s report focused on two things: the lack of responsible government in Upper Canada and the racial tensions between Upper and Lower Canadians. He suggested an assimilation of the “people with no literature and no history” into one, large English speaking group.
The Beginning of a Dual Identity The Durham report led to the Act of Union (1840) which united Upper and Lower Canada into one unit and under one government. The French language was banished from the government Education and civil law regarding the French Canadians was suspended. The creation of one parliament to oversee all of Canada.
The Beginning of a Dual Identity Francois-Xavier Garneau published his Histoire du Canada in 1845, as an attempt to promote the demise of the French Culture. In his book he tried to tell the story of the French colonists in a patriotic way, in order to bring them back into favour with the Crown. What Garneau`s book did do was make the French Canadians realize they had little or no cultural literature!
The Beginning of a Dual Identity Thus, the French Canadian population was inspire to begin writing. And subsequently the Quebec culture began to grow.
The Expression of Liberalism Economic Liberalism was the British way of thinking at the time. This meant individual business freedom and very little government intervention. This business philosophy was also the driving force behind the modernization of the Education system. Most notably, the business community wanted a school for professionals!
The Expression of Liberalism Two main groups supported this type of liberalism: The French Canadian middle-class or the Petit Bourgeoisie, which made up parties like the Parti Patriote and the Parti Rouge The English Business-Class or the Bourgeoisie d`Affairs, they profited most from the capitalist system and were represented by the Tory party.
The Expression of Liberalism The main venue for the transmission of ideas during the British Regime was Newspapers. The Quebec Gazette (1764) English and French The Montreal Gazette (1775) Liberalism – criticized the clergy, demanded a Legislative Assembly and became the voice of Canadian intellectuals. The Quebec Mercury The Montreal Herald Le Canadien La Minerve La Presse (1884)
Reflection! What did you know about the Age of Enlightenment before this lecture? Although many of the Enlightenment ideas came from the Italian Renaissance – why did they take so long to spread? What do you think of the Durham Report? Describe what you think Quebec would be like (culturally) if the Act of Union had been successful?