Population Composition in 1840: Inhabitants: 665 400 Mainly Francophones, growing Anglophone minority Changes in overall composition: A) 1845: Montreal becomes mainly Anglophone B) 1851: Canada West (Ontario) population bigger than Canada East (Quebec) population
Economy Agriculture 1. Main crops in Lower Canada: wheat, oats, potatoes 2. Target markets (who they want to sell to): locally and Britain 3. Effects on transportation: A) Increased the creation and use of canals and railways. B) Faster to transport AND increased volume
Economy 4. Free Trade: A) Britain gets tired of buying things from their colonies. Mainly because they cost way more. B) They abandon their “protectionist” policies in 1847 and adopt a Free Trade policy. They want to find the BEST PRICE instead of protecting their colonies. C) Result: BNA starts looking for a NEW market. What country will they choose?
5. Free Trade: D) BNA signs the Reciprocity Treaty with the US which lasts from 1854- 1864. E) Custom duties were abolished on major products. F) Canadians diversify their economy even more to suit American demand
The Durham Report 1. After the Rebellions, the British appointed Lord Durham as Governor General of Lower Canada. 2. His job was to investigate the causes of the Rebellions.
The Durham Report 3. In 1838 he made his final report; it was called the Durham Report 4. His report said that the Rebellions occurred because the colony’s economy was slow, and because of the “backwardness” of the French speaking population.
The Durham Report 5. He thought that the Constitutional Act was contradictory because the Legislative Assembly did not actually allow its members to govern. 6. He said the British government should give more power to the colony, by giving them ministerial responsibility.
The Durham Report 7. He also said that political problems were made worse in Lower Canada because of ethnic conflicts. 8. He suggested that the solution to this was the unification of Upper and Lower Canada.
The Durham Report Question: Why would Lord Durham have suggested uniting Upper and Lower Canada?
Durham Report Quotes “The French Canadiens are a people with no history and no literature.”
Durham Report Quotes “ I found two nations warring in the bosom of a single state.”
Durham Report Quotes “The superior political and practical intelligence of the English cannot be, for a moment disputed.”
Durham Report What do you think the British thought about this report?
The Act of Union 1. In 1840 the Act of Union created the United Province of Canada. This consisted of Canada East and Canada West. 2. The British rejected the idea of responsible government.
The last map change for the British Regime Constitutional Act (1791) Act of Union (1840)
The Act of Union 3. Canada East and Canada West both had the same amount of political representation. 4. Because the population of Canada East was larger, French Canadiens were not equally represented.
Responsible Government In 1848 United Canada is granted responsible government.