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1840 – 1865 Canada-Towards Confederation. Population  Composition in 1840:  Inhabitants: 665 400 Mainly Francophones, growing Anglophone minority Changes.

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Presentation on theme: "1840 – 1865 Canada-Towards Confederation. Population  Composition in 1840:  Inhabitants: 665 400 Mainly Francophones, growing Anglophone minority Changes."— Presentation transcript:

1 1840 – 1865 Canada-Towards Confederation

2 Population  Composition in 1840:  Inhabitants: Mainly Francophones, growing Anglophone minority Changes in overall composition:  A) 1845: Montreal becomes mainly Anglophone  B) 1851: Canada West (Ontario) population bigger than Canada East (Quebec) population

3 Economy  Agriculture  1. Main crops in Lower Canada: wheat, oats, potatoes  2. Target markets (who they want to sell to): locally and Britain  3. Effects on transportation:  A) Increased the creation and use of canals and railways.  B) Faster to transport AND increased volume

4 Economy  4. Free Trade:  A) Britain gets tired of buying things from their colonies. Mainly because they cost way more.  B) They abandon their “protectionist” policies in 1847 and adopt a Free Trade policy. They want to find the BEST PRICE instead of protecting their colonies.  C) Result: BNA starts looking for a NEW market.  What country will they choose?

5 5. Free Trade:  D) BNA signs the Reciprocity Treaty with the US which lasts from  E) Custom duties were abolished on major products.  F) Canadians diversify their economy even more to suit American demand

6 The Durham Report  1. After the Rebellions, the British appointed Lord Durham as Governor General of Lower Canada.  2. His job was to investigate the causes of the Rebellions.

7 The Durham Report  3. In 1838 he made his final report; it was called the Durham Report  4. His report said that the Rebellions occurred because the colony’s economy was slow, and because of the “backwardness” of the French speaking population.

8 The Durham Report  5. He thought that the Constitutional Act was contradictory because the Legislative Assembly did not actually allow its members to govern.  6. He said the British government should give more power to the colony, by giving them ministerial responsibility.

9 The Durham Report  7. He also said that political problems were made worse in Lower Canada because of ethnic conflicts.  8. He suggested that the solution to this was the unification of Upper and Lower Canada.

10 The Durham Report  Question:  Why would Lord Durham have suggested uniting Upper and Lower Canada?

11 Durham Report Quotes  “The French Canadiens are a people with no history and no literature.”

12 Durham Report Quotes  “ I found two nations warring in the bosom of a single state.”

13 Durham Report Quotes  “The superior political and practical intelligence of the English cannot be, for a moment disputed.”

14 Durham Report  What do you think the British thought about this report?

15 The Act of Union  1. In 1840 the Act of Union created the United Province of Canada.  This consisted of Canada East and Canada West.  2. The British rejected the idea of responsible government.

16 The last map change for the British Regime Constitutional Act (1791) Act of Union (1840)

17 The Act of Union  3. Canada East and Canada West both had the same amount of political representation.  4. Because the population of Canada East was larger, French Canadiens were not equally represented.

18 Responsible Government  In 1848 United Canada is granted responsible government.


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