Figure 14.24 Settlement patterns of the Eastern U.S. (Kniffen and Glassie 1966)
New light on the expatriate Southern community in Brazil Shana Poplack, William Labov, Maciej Baranowski
Older forms of Southern English retained in Americana speech The /j/ glide with /uw/ after coronals in new, tune, news, knew, student, etc. The contrast of /ohr/ vs. / O hr/ in more, four, before, important vs. born, for, north, short, etc. The contrast of /hw/ and /w/ in which, where, vs. witch, wear, etc. The presence of a palatal upglide with the mid-central vowel of first, church, work, etc. The presence of a palatal upglide with the low front vowel in plan, last, can’t.
/j/ glides for the McFadden family Lance McFadden Leslie McFadden Charles McFadden stupid stupid2 knew1knew2 knew3 news due1 due2
What are the forces that drive or slow the development of Southern English? 2. Ideological
Red States and Blue States in U.S. 2004 Presidential election
States for Kerry in 2000 and dialect areas: solid line = Northern dialect region: dashed line = Inland North and Northern Cities Shift
Presidential elections in which the North [NY, MI, WI, IA, MN] has been opposed to the South [TX, AK, LA, MI, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC, KY,TN, VA]
Conversation between John F. Kennedy and Senator Russell B. Long of Louisiana, 1960 JFK: But this isn’t 1876. Because what happens is it will become the most publicized thing... everybody’s looking, now what is this president promising this group and pretty soon you’ve got the Goddamndest mayhem. Long:... the Negro vote might be the key vote... JFK: At least I could count it... I think it’s crazy for the South because this way I’m concerned about Georgia and Louisiana and these places, here’s where we got a chance to carry them, but if I end up with no chance to carry them then I gotta go up north and try to do my business.
Valerie Fridland on the similar treatment of (ay) by Blacks and Whites in Memphis Tennessee These similarities are serving as markers of local regional, not ethnic affiliation in the sense of Eckert’s (2000) community of practice where social entities co-construct symbolic identity in so far as they participate in shared practices that come to characterize that group’s identity. While social unity was a part of the communities of practice explored by Eckert, I would expand her framework to suggest that these shared practices do not necessarily require individuals’ social cohesion, but merely require historical experience and a strongly circumscribing environment that places speakers in a similar social position relative to the external social world.... The modern South thus stands as a contradiction in terms of race relations with very little ethnic mixing beyond that forced by daily interaction but with a very strong sense of shared historical and cultural heritage uniting Black and White Southerners. --Fridland, Valerie 2000. Tie, tied and tight: The expansion of /ay/ monophthongization in African-American and European-American speech in Memphis, Tennessee. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7:279-298.
/i/ and /e/ before nasals for Allison Jones (bold = vowels before nasals)