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The Northern Cities Shift A radical rotation of the short vowels in the Inland North of the United States, which began in the middle of the 20th century.

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Presentation on theme: "The Northern Cities Shift A radical rotation of the short vowels in the Inland North of the United States, which began in the middle of the 20th century."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Northern Cities Shift A radical rotation of the short vowels in the Inland North of the United States, which began in the middle of the 20th century and is the major factor in the increasing differentiation of the vowel systems of the North from the Midland and the South

2 The Northern Cities Shift A radical rotation of the short vowels in the Inland North of the United States, which began in the middle of the 20th century and is the major factor in the increasing differentiation of the vowel systems of the North from the Midland and the South

3 Word Phrase Sentence 1. ______________________________________ 2. ______________________________________ 3. ______________________________________ 4. ______________________________________ The Northern Cities Shift

4 Word Phrase Sentence 1. black_____________living on one block 2. sacks_____________had to wear socks 3. dusk_____________behind the desk 4. bosses_____________buses with the antennas Misunderstandings from the Northern Cities Shift

5 The Northern Cities Shift ED Æ1 UD EQ

6 The Northern Cities Shift O2 measure: fronting of /o/ beyond 1450 Hz/

7 Isoglosses defining the progress of the Northern Cities Shift

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9 Speakers who show all six elements of the NCS

10 ANAE Map 11.14: Isoglosses defining the Inland North

11 The Northern Cities Shift: Mean values of low vowels for 21 dialects. PI = PittsburghWPA = Western Pennsylvania CA = Canada PR = Providence; IS = Inland SouthM = Midland;N = Inland North. IN

12 The Erie Canal

13 Raised short-a system of Simon Z., 47 [1995], Syracuse NY TS331

14 Raised /æ/ system of Randall R., 24 [1993], Chicago IL TS67

15 Nasal short-a system of Tom K., 45 [1996], Middletown CT, TS 476

16 Nasal short-a system of Natalie M., 43 [1998], Portland ME, TS724

17 Split short-a system of Nina B., 62 [1996], New York City, TS 495

18 Short-a systems in the formation of the Inland North

19 The Northern Cities Shift head desk bosses busses block socks mat

20 The Northern Cities Shift head desk bosses busses block socks mat

21 The UD measure of the Northern Cities Shift

22 The ED measure of the Northern Cities Shift

23 The EQ measure of the Northern Cities Shift,

24 Figure Presence and absence of the Northern Cities Shift as measured by F2(e) - F2(o) [=EOD] (a) Rita O., 42, Muncie IN TS 225. EOD = 849 (b) Leslie R., 42, Detroit MI TS 125. (c) Sherry K.,35, Rochester NY TS 173. EOD = 230 EOD = -7.

25 Settlement patterns shown by diffusion of building methods from seaboard nuclei --Kniffen & Glassie Fig. 27

26 The canal era: A. Wexler. Atlas of Westward Expansion. NY: Facts on File, p. 64

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28 Extended sample of speech from Sharon K., 35, Rochester, TS 359 Sharon K. is an advanced speaker of the Northern Cities Shift. Listen for the raising and fronting of short a in bad, have, that fronting of short o in gotta, job, Xerox, lot backing of short e in rest, education backing of short u in country Well... I-I--basically we’re just like the rest of the country, but uh--.. it’s not too bad, y’know, y’gotta have.. education t’get a job in these days. It’s gotten a little tougher that way. Y’know, Xerox, or Xerox here, and IBM, and I guess they’re doin’ pretty good, y’know. Uhm--yeh, everybody I know does. Now I know there’s people.. Y’know most people I know have jobs. Y’know I don’t really know too many people that don’t..or have-- own their own businesses. Y’know, me and my husband both have our own business--and I see a lot of that, I know a lot of people that have their own business. Y’know, compared to the way it used to be... Y’know, you go work for somebody now... I think that’s changed a lot.

29 Sharon K. is an advanced speaker of the Northern Cities Shift. Listen for the raising and fronting of short a in Catholic, adding, taxes, fact fronting of short /o/ in modeling, lot backing of short /e/ in send, went, sending fronting of /ay/ in nine backing of /i/ in tuition Yeah, well I send my kids to private school, but--across the street from me is a Catholic school, y’know I send ‘em there. I went there, in fact I live in the house that I grew up in. We’re re-modeling right now, uh adding on to the family room, and doing the work. We-we like the neighborhood, and we feel very comfortable here. We like all the neighbors, y’know, neighbors I’ve known since I was nine. Bishop Parity behind us, but I don’t know if we’re gonna be sending him there. The tuition could be very expensive. As it is now, we’re paying a lot for public...Y’know we pay a lot of--taxes are very high here. Extended sample of speech from Sharon K., 35, Rochester, TS 359

30 The progress of the Northern Cities Shift in the Inland North [N=71] by the EOD measure, city size and age Chicago Detroit Buffalo Kenosha <

31 Fig The backing of wedge in the Northern Cities Shift

32 Map The discontinuous character of the Inland North with re-assignment of Erie, PA

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34 NCS Correlations æ e o oh ^ North Non- North æ e o oh ^.36.15

35 Regression coefficients of the NCS for the Inland North speakers of the Atlas of North American English [N=68]. F2(æ)F2(o)F1(oh)F2(e)F2(^) Age: * 25 years Gender: female Education: < 13 yrs red coefficients = favoring the change in progress blue coefficients = disfavoring the change in progress

36 Source: Eckert 2000 ^ æ Gender and social category determination of five elements of the Northern City Shift in a Detroit suburban high school

37 ANAE notation for the word classes of North American English kidcould Kedcud cadcod keyed cade coy hide suit cooed code cowed cawed father


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