Presentation on theme: "Review 1)What is a random sample? 2)What is saliency? 3)What is political socialization and what is the biggest factor that impacts it? 4)What is the gender."— Presentation transcript:
Review 1)What is a random sample? 2)What is saliency? 3)What is political socialization and what is the biggest factor that impacts it? 4)What is the gender gap and what influence does it have on elections?
Cleavages and Ideology Political Beliefs and Behaviors #4
Cleavages Cleavages in public opinion are characteristics of individuals that account for differences in political values, opinions, and behavior. Important to recognize that no single feature of an individual’s life explains all, or even most, of that individual’s attitudes
Three Major Cleavages 1)Social Class 2)Race and Ethnicity 3)Region
Social Class Social class is less important in the United States than it is in Europe (and has declined steadily since the 1940s). Due to the rise of non-economic factors (social issues and foreign policy) as becoming factors in the liberal and conservative divide. Differences that do remain: Unskilled workers are more likely to be Democrats than affluent white-collar workers.
Race and Ethnicity African Americans Most consistently liberal group (close to 85% Democratic voting rate) Younger blacks are more likely to identify Republican than older blacks (but still overwhelmingly Democratic)
Race and Ethnicity African Americans More likely to support Affirmative Action More likely to believe criminal justice system is biased More likely to oppose use of military force Less likely to believe we have a duty to join the military Less likely to believe God is needed for a person to be moral White Americans Less likely to support Affirmative Action Less likely to believe criminal justice system is biased Less likely to oppose use of military force More likely to believe we have a duty to join the military More likely to believe God is needed for a person to be moral Agreement on: Getting tougher on crime Abortion Dependency on Government Aid The Power to Succed
Race and Ethnicity Latinos and Asians Information is not as widely available nor as conclusive as it is for African-Americans Partially due to immigration histories and impact on culture Less “unity” among the broad groups that make up the overall category of Latino or Asian
Race and Ethnicity Latinos -Tend to identify Democratic (with exception of Cubans) but not as much as African Americans. -Catholic Influence on Social Issues. Asians -More identified with Republican Party than are Whites (although large generational difference)
Race and Ethnicity More Liberal Less Liberal Blacks Latinos Whites Asians
The “Solid” South – Significantly more Republican than any other region. (No Democratic Presidential candidate has won a majority of the White Southern Vote since LBJ in Obama received 30%) – More Socially Conservative – More accommodating to Business (less towards organized labor) – Similar Economic Beliefs
Region Why is the South more conservative? – Rural Population vs. Urban – Distrust of Organized Labor – Strong Protestant Fundamentalism
Region The Northeast – Has become more and more solidly Democratic – Partially due to population change (Since 1980 population has shifted from the North and East to the South and West). – Why? Diverse population (larger population of Blacks and Latinos) More urban centers than rural areas Much more positive towards organized labor Environmental concerns
Political Ideology Ideology refers to a more or less consistent set of beliefs about what policies government ought to pursue Measuring Ideology – Seeing how frequently people use broad categories to describe or justify their own views – Seeing to what extent a citizen’s policy preferences are consistent over time Self identification does not yield much information – Most Americans are no ideological (not consistent) – Limitations of polling
Political Ideology Beyond “Liberal” and “Conservative” Social IssuesEconomic Issues Pure Liberal Libertarians Populists Pure Conservative Liberal Conservative
Elite Opinion and Influence Elites (Also know as Activists) are those who have a disproportionate amount of some valued resource (money, information, etc) Elites tend to have greater ideological consistency (More information and more interest in politics so they may see more relationships among issues).
Elite Opinion and Influence Elites influence public opinion in two ways 1)Raise and Frame Political Issues 2)State norms by which to settle issues and define policy options Limits on Elite Influence Do not define economic, crime, and other problems that come from personal experience Elites contradict each other Impact of Internet