Presentation on theme: "Review What is a random sample? What is saliency?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Review What is a random sample? What is saliency? What is political socialization and what is the biggest factor that impacts it?What is the gender gap and what influence does it have on elections?
2 Cleavages and Ideology Political Beliefs and Behaviors #4
3 CleavagesCleavages in public opinion are characteristics of individuals that account for differences in political values, opinions, and behavior. Important to recognize that no single feature of an individual’s life explains all, or even most, of that individual’s attitudes
4 Three Major CleavagesSocial ClassRace and EthnicityRegion
5 Social ClassSocial class is less important in the United States than it is in Europe (and has declined steadily since the 1940s).Due to the rise of non-economic factors (social issues and foreign policy) as becoming factors in the liberal and conservative divide.Differences that do remain: Unskilled workers are more likely to be Democrats than affluent white-collar workers.
6 Race and Ethnicity African Americans Most consistently liberal group (close to 85% Democratic voting rate)Younger blacks are more likely to identify Republican than older blacks (but still overwhelmingly Democratic)
7 Race and Ethnicity Agreement on: Getting tougher on crime Abortion African AmericansWhite AmericansAgreement on:Getting tougher on crimeAbortionDependency on Government AidThe Power to SuccedMore likely to support Affirmative ActionMore likely to believe criminal justice system is biasedMore likely to oppose use of military forceLess likely to believe we have a duty to join the militaryLess likely to believe God is needed for a person to be moralLess likely to support Affirmative ActionLess likely to believe criminal justice system is biasedLess likely to oppose use of military forceMore likely to believe we have a duty to join the militaryMore likely to believe God is needed for a person to be moral
8 Race and Ethnicity Latinos and Asians Information is not as widely available nor as conclusive as it is for African-AmericansPartially due to immigration histories and impact on cultureLess “unity” among the broad groups that make up the overall category of Latino or Asian
9 Race and Ethnicity Latinos Tend to identify Democratic (with exception of Cubans) but not as much as African Americans.Catholic Influence on Social Issues.AsiansMore identified with Republican Party than are Whites (although large generational difference)
10 Race and EthnicityMore Liberal Less Liberal Blacks Latinos Whites Asians
12 Region The “Solid” South Significantly more Republican than any other region. (No Democratic Presidential candidate has won a majority of the White Southern Vote since LBJ in Obama received 30%)More Socially ConservativeMore accommodating to Business (less towards organized labor)Similar Economic Beliefs
13 Region Why is the South more conservative? Rural Population vs. Urban Distrust of Organized LaborStrong Protestant Fundamentalism
14 Region The Northeast Has become more and more solidly Democratic Partially due to population change (Since 1980 population has shifted from the North and East to the South and West).Why?Diverse population (larger population of Blacks and Latinos)More urban centers than rural areasMuch more positive towards organized laborEnvironmental concerns
15 Political IdeologyIdeology refers to a more or less consistent set of beliefs about what policies government ought to pursueMeasuring IdeologySeeing how frequently people use broad categories to describe or justify their own viewsSeeing to what extent a citizen’s policy preferences are consistent over timeSelf identification does not yield much informationMost Americans are no ideological (not consistent)Limitations of polling
16 Political Ideology Beyond “Liberal” and “Conservative” Social IssuesEconomic IssuesPure LiberalLibertariansPopulistsPure ConservativeLiberalLiberalLiberalConservativeConservativeLiberalConservativeConservative
17 Elite Opinion and Influence Elites (Also know as Activists) are those who have a disproportionate amount of some valued resource (money, information, etc)Elites tend to have greater ideological consistency (More information and more interest in politics so they may see more relationships among issues).
18 Elite Opinion and Influence Elites influence public opinion in two waysRaise and Frame Political IssuesState norms by which to settle issues and define policy optionsLimits on Elite InfluenceDo not define economic, crime, and other problems that come from personal experienceElites contradict each otherImpact of Internet