We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byJosue Russel
Modified about 1 year ago
1 Alterations of Erythrocyte Function Chapter 26
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 2 Anemia Reduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin Impaired erythrocyte production Acute or chronic blood loss Increased erythrocyte destruction Combination of the above
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 3 Anemia Classifications Etiology Morphology Based on MCV, MCH, and MCHC values Size Identified by terms that end in -cytic Macrocytic, microcytic, normocytic Hemoglobin content Identified by terms that end in -chromic Normochromic and hypochromic
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 4 Anemia Anisocytosis Red cells are present in various sizes Poikilocytosis Red cells are present in various shapes
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 5 Anemia Physiologic manifestation Reduced oxygen carrying capacity Variable symptoms based on severity and the ability for the body to compensate Classic anemia symptoms Fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, and pallor
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 6 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias Also termed megaloblastic anemias Characterized by defective DNA synthesis Due to deficiencies in vitamin B 12 or folate Coenzymes for nuclear maturation and the DNA synthesis pathway Ribonucleic acid (RNA) processes occur at a normal rate Results in the unequal growth of the nucleus and cytoplasm
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 7 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias Pernicious anemia Caused by a lack of intrinsic factor from the gastric parietal cells Required for vitamin B 12 absorption Results in vitamin B 12 deficiency
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 8 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias Pernicious anemia Typical anemia symptoms Neurologic manifestations Nerve demyelination Others Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, beefy red tongue (atrophic glossitis), icterus, and splenic enlargement Treatment Parenteral or high oral doses of vitamin B 12
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 9 Pernicious Anemia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 10 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias Folate deficiency anemia Absorption of folate occurs in the upper small intestine Not dependent on any other facilitating factor Similar symptoms to pernicious anemia except neurologic manifestations are generally not seen Treatment requires daily oral administration of folate
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 11 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias Characterized by red cells that are abnormally small and contain reduced amounts of hemoglobin. Related to: Disorders of iron metabolism Disorders of porphyrin and heme synthesis Disorders of globin synthesis
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 12 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias Iron deficiency anemia Most common type of anemia worldwide Nutritional iron deficiency Metabolic or functional deficiency Progression of iron deficiency causes: Brittle, thin, coarsely ridged, and spoon-shaped nails A red, sore, and painful tongue
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 13 Iron Deficiency Anemia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 14 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias Sideroblastic anemia Group of disorders characterized by anemia Altered mitochondrial metabolism causing ineffective iron uptake and resulting in dysfunctional hemoglobin synthesis Ringed sideroblasts within the bone marrow are diagnostic Sideroblasts are erythroblasts that contain iron granules that have not been synthesized into hemoglobin
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 15 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias Sideroblastic anemia Dimorphism Myelodysplastic syndrome Erythropoietic hemochromatosis
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 16 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias Characterized by red cells that are relatively normal in size and hemoglobin content but insufficient in number
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 17 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias Aplastic anemia Pancytopenia Pure red cell aplasia Fanconi anemia Posthemorrhagic anemia Acute blood loss from the vascular space
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 18 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias Hemolytic anemia Accelerated destruction of red blood cells Autoimmune hemolytic anemias Immunohemolytic anemia Warm antibody immunohemolytic anemia Drug-induced hemolytic anemia Cold agglutinin immunohemolytic anemia Cold hemolysin hemolytic anemia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 19 Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 20 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias Sickle cell anemia Anemia of chronic inflammation Mild to moderate anemia seen in: AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, renal failure, and malignancies Pathologic mechanisms Decreased erythrocyte life span Ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin Altered iron metabolism
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 21 Anemia of Chronic Inflammation
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 22 Myeloproliferative RBC Disorders Polycythemia Overproduction of red blood cells Relative polycythemia Result of dehydration Fluid loss results in relative increases of red cell counts and Hgb and Hct values
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 23 Polycythemia Absolute polycythemia Primary absolute Abnormality of stem cells in the bone marrow Polycythemia vera (PV) Secondary absolute Increase in erythropoietin as a normal response to chronic hypoxia or an inappropriate response to erythropoietin-secreting tumors
Alterations of Erythrocyte Function Chapter 26 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Some material was previously published. Alterations of Hematologic.
1 COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE Chapter 20. Erythrocytic disorders.
MLAB Hematology Keri Brophy-Martinez Unit 7: Anemia.
MLAB Hematology Keri Brophy-Martinez Anemia Part One.
Hematology-Oncology Course. Erythrocytes - Characteristics Red cells % of blood volume, 5 x 10 6 cells / L “bag” of hemoglobin: non-nucleated,
Lecture – 3 Dr. Zahoor Ali Shaikh 1. What is Anemia? Anemia means - Decreased hemoglobin - Decreased RBC count - Decreased Hematocrit [PCV] Therefore,
Deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood. Causes: Too few RBCs. Too little hemoglobin in cells Decreased packed cell volume. This may be due to:
Chapter 7 Diseases of the Blood. Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Terms Erythrocytes: Red blood cells.
Maj Gen (R) Masood Anwar Professor of Haematology.
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA/ ANEMIA OF CHRONIC DISEASE.
ERYTHROCYTE II (Anemia Polycythemia) Dr. Shaikh Mujeeb Ahmed Assistant Professor AlMaarefa College HMIM BLOCK 224.
Lab investigations of different types of Anemias: 1.A complete blood count, CBC RBC count Hematocrit (Hct) or packed cell volume Hemoglobin determination.
Anaemias Polycythaemia. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ANAEMIAS Anaemia is defined as a condition in which the hemoglobin concentration is below the normal range,
Anemia Dr. Meg-angela Christi M. Amores. What is Hematopoeisis? It is the process by which the formed elements of the blood are produced Erythropoeisis:
AN APPROACH TO THE ANEMIC PATIENT. Prevalence and causes of anemia world-wide Blood 2014;123:615 Us More common in women Iron deficiency most common cause.
Approach to Anemia Sadie T. Velásquez, M.D.. Objectives.
HEMATOLOGY Jane Finley, BS MT (ASCP) Nov 1, 2004.
2nd year Medicine- IBLS Module May Lecture 2 Red Blood Cells, Anemias & Polycythemias.
Anemia Presented by M.A. Kaeser, DC Fall 2009
An Approach to Anemia. Anemia is operationally defined as a reduction in one or more of the major RBC measurements: hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit,
PRINCIPLES OF HEMATOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS 1.HISTORY I-Medical history A.The present illness, focus on the following: 1.Bleeding. 2.Infection or symptoms related.
Chapter 7 Disorders of Blood Cells Lecture 7 The Nature of Disease Pathology for the Health Professions Thomas H. McConnell.
Nada Mohamed Ahmed, MD, MT (ASCP)i Introduction to anemia.
Tabuk University Tabuk University Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences Department Of Medical Lab. Technology 2 nd Year – Level 4 – AY
Classification of Anaemia By, Mosaab A. Omar. What is Anaemia? Definition of Anaemia Anemia is reduced Haemoglobin concentration in blood more than.
Blood Physiology Professor A.M.A Abdel Gader MD, PhD, FRCP (Lond., Edin), FRSH (London) Professor of Physiology, College of Medicine & The Blood Bank,
Objectives : When you complete this section,you should be able to : 1- Explain where blood is produced in the fetuses, children& adults. 1- Explain where.
CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIA Prof. Dr. S. Sami Kartı.
Copyright © 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Focus on Anemia.
Week 4: Macrocytic Anemia Macrocytosis Macrocytosis Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 Folic acid Folic acid Megaloblastic changes Megaloblastic changes Pernicious.
Chapter 32: Red Blood Cells, Anemia, and Polycythemia Guyton and Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12 th edition.
Anaemia Anemia is not a "disease" on its own rather it is the effect of another underlying reason which leads to anemia development. That.
Anemia of chronic disease is a hypoproliferative ( بالتدريج) anemia associated with chronic infectious or inflammatory processes, tissue injury, or conditions.
MLAB 1415: Hematology Keri Brophy-Martinez Chapter 8: Anemia Part Two.
ANEMIA. Key points Anemia is not a specific disease state but a sign of an underlying disorder There are several kinds of anemia. A physiologic approach.
What is Anemia? Anemia is having less than normal number of red blood cells or less hemoglobin than normal in the blood. *Microcytic Anemia: Any abnormal.
NEOPLASTIC DISORDERS OF THE BONE MARROW Those that are not leukemias.
Introduction Physiology is the study of the living things. (from Greek physis = nature; logos= study physiology is concerned with the way the human body.
Physiology Presentation Roll No.# 218, 224, 230, 236, 242, 248 Muhammad Mohsin Ali Dynamo.
Red Blood Cells. BLOOD Morphological Features of RBCs. Production of RBCs Regulation of production of RBCs Nutritional substances need for RBC.
Objectives Body stores and daily requirements of vitamin B12 and folate Absorption of vitamin B12 and folate from the gut Causes of vitamin B12 and folate.
Review - Anemias/WBCs. Hemolytic Anemia Arrows indicate cells being destroyed; Acquired (thru certain chemicals) or inherited RBCs are destroyed before.
MACROCYTIC ANEMIAS. These are the anemias in which the RBC have an MCV of greater than 100fl There are 2 groups of macrocytic anemias 1. Megaloblastic.
YOUR LOGO HERE Department of Haematology, Collegium Medicum Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland Anaemia Prof. A. B. Skotnicki M.D. Ph.D.
Altered Hematologic Function: Erythrocytes. Physical Characteristics of Blood Heavier, thicker, and 3-4 X more viscous than water Heavier, thicker, and.
MLAB 2401: Clinical Chemistry Keri Brophy-Martinez Chapter 5: Hemoglobin Production Disorders.
Anaemia By Jeeves. Symptoms Fatigue Exertional Dyspnoea Palpitations Syncope Headaches Angina (if server with underlying CAD) Intermittent claudication.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.