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1 Alterations of Erythrocyte Function Chapter 26
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 2 Anemia Reduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin Impaired erythrocyte production Acute or chronic blood loss Increased erythrocyte destruction Combination of the above
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 3 Anemia Classifications Etiology Morphology Based on MCV, MCH, and MCHC values Size Identified by terms that end in -cytic Macrocytic, microcytic, normocytic Hemoglobin content Identified by terms that end in -chromic Normochromic and hypochromic
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 4 Anemia Anisocytosis Red cells are present in various sizes Poikilocytosis Red cells are present in various shapes
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 5 Anemia Physiologic manifestation Reduced oxygen carrying capacity Variable symptoms based on severity and the ability for the body to compensate Classic anemia symptoms Fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, and pallor
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 6 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias Also termed megaloblastic anemias Characterized by defective DNA synthesis Due to deficiencies in vitamin B 12 or folate Coenzymes for nuclear maturation and the DNA synthesis pathway Ribonucleic acid (RNA) processes occur at a normal rate Results in the unequal growth of the nucleus and cytoplasm
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 7 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias Pernicious anemia Caused by a lack of intrinsic factor from the gastric parietal cells Required for vitamin B 12 absorption Results in vitamin B 12 deficiency
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 8 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias Pernicious anemia Typical anemia symptoms Neurologic manifestations Nerve demyelination Others Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, beefy red tongue (atrophic glossitis), icterus, and splenic enlargement Treatment Parenteral or high oral doses of vitamin B 12
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 9 Pernicious Anemia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 10 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias Folate deficiency anemia Absorption of folate occurs in the upper small intestine Not dependent on any other facilitating factor Similar symptoms to pernicious anemia except neurologic manifestations are generally not seen Treatment requires daily oral administration of folate
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 11 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias Characterized by red cells that are abnormally small and contain reduced amounts of hemoglobin. Related to: Disorders of iron metabolism Disorders of porphyrin and heme synthesis Disorders of globin synthesis
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 12 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias Iron deficiency anemia Most common type of anemia worldwide Nutritional iron deficiency Metabolic or functional deficiency Progression of iron deficiency causes: Brittle, thin, coarsely ridged, and spoon-shaped nails A red, sore, and painful tongue
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 13 Iron Deficiency Anemia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 14 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias Sideroblastic anemia Group of disorders characterized by anemia Altered mitochondrial metabolism causing ineffective iron uptake and resulting in dysfunctional hemoglobin synthesis Ringed sideroblasts within the bone marrow are diagnostic Sideroblasts are erythroblasts that contain iron granules that have not been synthesized into hemoglobin
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 15 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias Sideroblastic anemia Dimorphism Myelodysplastic syndrome Erythropoietic hemochromatosis
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 16 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias Characterized by red cells that are relatively normal in size and hemoglobin content but insufficient in number
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 17 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias Aplastic anemia Pancytopenia Pure red cell aplasia Fanconi anemia Posthemorrhagic anemia Acute blood loss from the vascular space
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 18 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias Hemolytic anemia Accelerated destruction of red blood cells Autoimmune hemolytic anemias Immunohemolytic anemia Warm antibody immunohemolytic anemia Drug-induced hemolytic anemia Cold agglutinin immunohemolytic anemia Cold hemolysin hemolytic anemia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 19 Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemia
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 20 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias Sickle cell anemia Anemia of chronic inflammation Mild to moderate anemia seen in: AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, renal failure, and malignancies Pathologic mechanisms Decreased erythrocyte life span Ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin Altered iron metabolism
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 21 Anemia of Chronic Inflammation
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 22 Myeloproliferative RBC Disorders Polycythemia Overproduction of red blood cells Relative polycythemia Result of dehydration Fluid loss results in relative increases of red cell counts and Hgb and Hct values
Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 23 Polycythemia Absolute polycythemia Primary absolute Abnormality of stem cells in the bone marrow Polycythemia vera (PV) Secondary absolute Increase in erythropoietin as a normal response to chronic hypoxia or an inappropriate response to erythropoietin-secreting tumors
Chapter 14 The Hematopoietic and Lymphatic Systems.
THALASSAEMIA A group of chronic, inherited anemias characterised by defective Hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis, particularly common.
FULL BLOOD COUNT PRESENTATION Clinical Practice A GROUP C.
CHAPTER 13 THE RED BLOOD CELL AND ALTERATIONS IN OXYGEN TRANSPORT Essentials of Pathophysiology.
Chapter 37 Hematologic and Lymphatic Systems. Anatomy and Physiology Review Heart pumps 5 to 6 liters of blood per minute through adult circulatory system.
YOUR LOGO HERE Department of Haematology, Collegium Medicum Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland Anaemia Prof. A. B. Skotnicki M.D. Ph.D.
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1 Structure and Function of the Hematologic System Chapter 25.
RBC Morphology and Cases Dr. Gilberts Lab. CASE 1 Normal peripheral blood smear –A normal complete blood count (CBC) and normal peripheral blood smear.
Haematology Group A. Patient X A 61 year old male A 61 year old male Presents with: Presents with: –generalised weakness & increasing dyspnoea on exertion.
Haemopoietic Functions- Related Vitamins HMIM224.
The Circulatory System - Blood Part 4: Regulation & Maintenance.
Chapter 27 The Child with a Condition of the Blood, Blood-Forming Organs, or Lymphatic System.
Cardiovascular System: Blood Chapter 14. Cardiovascular System 3 components –Blood, heart, and blood vessels Transports substances to and from body cells.
Chapter 10 BLOOD. Characteristics Only fluid (connective) tissue. Opaque Metallic taste Color – scarlet to dull red Depends on oxygen pH btw 7.35 to 7.45.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Chapter 24 Vitamins and Minerals.
Chapter 26 The Child with a Cardiovascular Disorder.
RED BLOOD CELL MORPHOLOGY NORMAL RED BLOOD CELLS.
1 Tumor Invasion and Metastasis Chapter 12. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. 2 Tumor Spread Direct invasion of contiguous organs Known.
Connie Gilet, ANP UNC Kidney Center/ UNC Healthcare September 2011.
Blood! Chapter Twelve Anatomy & Physiology. Introduction Blood is a liquid connective tissue that serves as the transport medium in the circulatory system.
Dr Nnenna Osuji Dr Stella Appiah-Cubi Dr Stella Kotsiopoulou 21/05/2014.
Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation Chapter 8 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 41 Connective Tissue Disorders.
Chapter 20 Pregnancy complication from a pre- existing or newly acquired illness.
1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 45 Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders.
A ppt PRESENTATION ON HAEMATINICS & ERYTHROPOIETIN BY: Dr Richa Malviya Dr.PRASHANT,MD dr prashant's
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