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Maj Gen (R) Masood Anwar Professor of Haematology.

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Presentation on theme: "Maj Gen (R) Masood Anwar Professor of Haematology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Maj Gen (R) Masood Anwar Professor of Haematology

2  Functions of blood ◦ Transport of nutrients ◦ Transport of gases ◦ Haemostasis ◦ Defence  Composition of blood ◦ Cells (RBC, WBC, Platelets) ◦ Plasma (Colloids, Crystalloids, Water)

3  PYSIOLOGICAL DEFINITION ◦ Decrease in oxygen carrying capacity of blood.  ANALYTICAL (PATHOLOGICAL) DEFINITION ◦ Reduction in total circulating red cell mass ◦ Reduction in Haemoglobin concentration and/or Haematocrit

4 These are blood cells produced in the bone marrow from a pleuripotent haemopoietic stem cell by processes of division, differentiation and maturation and released in the circulation to function mainly to transport oxygen from lungs to other tissues of the body.

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6  Haemoglobin (Hb)  Haematocrit (Hct)  [Packed Cell Volume (PCV)]  Total Red Blood Cell Count (TRBC)  Mean Cell Volume (MCV)  Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH)  Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)  Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)

7 PARAMETERADULT MALEADULT FEMALE Hb13-17 g/dl12-16 g/dl TRBC X /l X /l Hct/PCV40-54%/ l/l36-49%/ l/l MCV76-96 fl MCH27-32 pg MCHC g/dl

8  MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION Based on appearance of RBC under the microscope OR red blood cell indices  PATHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION Based on abnormality of anatomical, biochemical or physiological abnormality  ETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION Based on specific causative process/agent

9 Normocytic normochromic anaemia

10 Hypochromic Microcytic Anaemia

11  Iron deficiency anaemia  Thalassaemia minor  Sideroblastic anaemia  Anaemia of chronic disorders

12 Macrocytic anaemia

13  Megaloblastic anaemia  Aplastic anaemia  Myxoedema  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  Liver Disease  Myelodysplastic syndromes

14  Blood loss ◦ Acute ◦ Chronic  Decreased production ◦ Disturbance of proliferation and differentiation  Of stem cells  Of erythroblasts ◦ Defective Hb synthesis  Increased destruction ◦ Intracarpuscular (Intrinsic) defects ◦ Extracarpuscular (Extrinsic) defects

15  Hereditary ◦ Blood loss – Hereditary Intestinal telengiectasia ◦ Decreased production – Pure Red Cell aplasia ◦ Increased destruction – Membrane, Enzyme and Hb defects  Congenital ◦ Defective production – Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia,Congenital sideroblastic anaemia ◦ Increased destruction – Cardiac defects, vascular defects  Acquired

16  Blood loss ◦ Acute ◦ Chronic  Ulcerative lesions of GIT  Female reproductive system  Parasites – Ankylostoma duodenale, Schistosoma haematobium

17  Increased destruction of RBC ◦ Membrane defect (PNH) ◦ Mechanical trauma (Microangiopathies) ◦ Antibody mediated (Immune haemolytic anaemia) ◦ Parasites (malaria, Aroya fever)

18  Decreased production ◦ Deficiency anaemias  Iron deficiency  Vitamin B12 and Folate deficiency ◦ Bone marrow disease/infiltration ◦ Miscellaneous  Pyridoxin responsive anaemia  Sideroblastic anaemia


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